Table 3.

Incidence rates of progression of microalbuminuria to proteinuria in patients who were treated with ACE-I according to selected characteristics

CharacteristicsPerson-Years (n)Progressed to Proteinuria (n)Incidence Rate (per 100 person-years)Pa
Gender0.92
    men354226.2
    women359236.4
Cohort0.26
    incidence127118.7
    prevalence586345.8
Smoking status0.24
    current155138.4
    former or never553315.6
Duration of diabetes (yr)b0.009
    <161651911.5
    16 to 30362205.5
    >3018663.2
BMI (kg/m2)b0.84
    <22.3151117.3
    22.3 to 27.5310185.8
    >27.515753.2
HbA1c (%)c<0.0001
    <8.635192.6
    8.6 to 9.6198126.1
    >9.61592314.5
Cholesterol (mg/dl)c0.002
    <199363113.0
    199 to 223171116.4
    >2231672112.6
SBP (mmHg)b,d0.13
    <118165159.1
    118 to 137340226.5
    >13718663.2
DBP (mmHg)b0.58
    <70128107.8
    70 to 80370205.4
    >80193136.7
AER (μg/min)c<0.0001
    <91.737261.6
    91.7 to 158.918394.9
    >158.91583019.0
Treatment with lipid-lowering drugs during outcome interval0.46
    no606406.6
    yes10754.7
Treatment with antihypertensive medications other than ACE-I during outcome intervale0.19
    no510367.1
    yes20394.4
Years of treatment with ACE-I by the end of outcome interval0.38
    2318206.3
    4198168.1
    >419794.6
  • a Testing overall significance of the exposure using likelihood ratio test.

  • b Second and third quartiles collapsed.

  • c First and second quartiles collapsed.

  • dUsing American Diabetes Association BP goals of SBP <130 mmHg and DBP <80 mmHg, 57% did not meet that target and 43% did. This was not related to progression to proteinuria, however. Of those who met the goal, 13% progressed to proteinuria, and of those who did not meet the goal, 11% progressed to proteinuria.

  • e The introduction of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) as a treatment option occurred near the end of the study and was infrequent. Two patients were treated with an ARB in addition to their existing ACE-I treatment during two follow-up intervals and three patients for one follow-up interval. Three patients switched to an ARB after long-term treatment with an ACE-I and were still counted in the ACE-I–treated group.