Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of the incident and prevalent cohortsa

Baseline CharacteristicsPrevalent Cohort(n = 277)Incident Cohort(n = 96)P
Male gender (%)50470.62
Smoking status (%)0.006
    current2946
    former1910
    never5244
Age (yr)30 ± 831 ± 80.12
Diabetes duration (yr)17 ± 916 ± 80.31
BMI (kg/m2)24.6 ± 3.524.7 ± 4.90.96
HbA1c (%)9.0 ± 1.69.2 ± 1.60.24
Cholesterol (mg/dl)196 ± 41197 ± 410.73
SBP (mmHg)123 ± 15124 ± 170.69
DBP (mmHg)75 ± 975 ± 80.93
AER (μg/min)b74.3 (46.1 to 135.1)48.8 (37.8 to 72.3)<0.0001
Treated with a lipid-lowering medication (%)200.33
Treated with an ACE-I (%)c2070.003
Treated with an antihypertensive medication not an ACE-I (%)1060.23
  • a ACE-I, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; AER, albumin excretion rate; BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic BP; HbA1c, glycosylated hemoglobin; SBP, systolic BP.

  • b Data are median and interquartile range and transformed to logarithmic scale for significance testing.

  • c Patients who were treated with an ACE-I for at least 3 mo. Only one patient was treated for >3 mo and discontinued ACE-I during the study. This person did so after 6 yr of treatment and then contributed to non–ACE-I–treated person time after discontinuation.