Table 1.

Possible causes of hypomagnesemia in patients with type 2 diabetes

Decreased intake
    poor oral intake
    esophageal dysfunction
    diabetic gastroparesis
Enhanced gastrointestinal loss
    diarrhea as a result of autonomic dysfunction
Enhanced renal magnesium loss
    enhanced filtered load
        glomerular hyperfiltration
        osmotic diuresis (glucosuria)
        volume expansion as a result of excessive volume replacement
        metabolic acidosis (diabetic ketoacidosis)
        microalbuminuria and overt proteinuria
    reduced renal reabsorption
        endocrinologic dysfunction: insulin deficiency or resistance
        metabolic acidosis (diabetic ketoacidosis)
        electrolyte abnormalities: phosphate and potassium depletion