Table 1.

Clinical studies showing a benefit of specific interventions on the onset and progression of chronic renal disease and related complicationsa

YearStudy (Reference)SettingInterventionMain Outcome
1983Parving et al. (40)Type 1 diabetes, overt nephropathyBP controlSlowed GFR decline
1993Collaborative Study (6)Type 1 diabetes, overt nephropathyACE inhibitionReduced incidence of ESRD
DCCT (6)Type 1 diabetesIntensified metabolic controlReduced incidence of microvascular complications
1994European Microalbuminuria Captopril Study (41)Type 1 diabetes, microalbuminuriaACE inhibitionReduced incidence of macroalbuminuria
MDRD Study (42)Nondiabetic chronic nephropathiesIntensified BP controlSlowed GFR decline
1997REIN Study (7)Nondiabetic chronic nephropathiesACE inhibitionSlowed GFR decline, reduced incidence of ESRD
1998REIN Follow-Up Study (8)Nondiabetic chronic nephropathiesACE inhibitionGFR stabilization or improvement
UKPDS 33 (43)Type 2 diabetesIntensified metabolic controlReduced incidence of microvascular complications
UKPDS 38 (44)Type 2 diabetesIntensified BP controlReduced mortality
Reduced incidence of micro- and macrovascular complications
2001IRMA 2 Study (45)Type 2 diabetes, microalbuminuriaAngiotensin II blockadeReduced incidence of macroalbuminuria
RENAAL Study (11)Type 2 diabetesAngiotensin II blockadeReduced incidence of ESRD
IDNT Study (12)Overt nephropathy
2004BENEDICT (46)Type 2 diabetesACE inhibitionReduced incidence of microalbuminuria
  • a ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; BENEDICT, Bergamo Nephrologic Diabetic Complications Trial; DCCT, Diabetes Control and Complications Trial; IDNT, Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial; IRMA, Irbesartan Microalbuminuria Type 2 Diabetes in Hypertensive Patients; MDRD, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease; REIN, Ramipril Efficacy In Nephropathy; RENAAL, Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan; UKPDS, UK Prospective Diabetes Study.