Table 1.

Serum chemistries of the study participants according to intervention perioda

ParameterControlLemonadeOrange JuiceANOVA P
BUN (mg/dl)11 ± 310 ± 311 ± 3b<0.05
Cr (mg/dl)0.9 ± 0.20.9 ± 0.20.9 ± 0.20.61
Na+ (mEq/L)138 ± 2138 ± 2137 ± 20.31
K+ (mEq/L)4.2 ± 0.34.3 ± 0.34.4 ± 0.30.22
Cl (mEq/L)105 ± 2105 ± 3104 ± 20.35
CO2 (mEq/L)28 ± 229 ± 229 ± 20.11
Ca2+ (mg/dl)9.3 ± 0.39.3 ± 0.39.3 ± 0.20.95
Pi (mg/dl)3.4 ± 0.43.2 ± 0.63.4 ± 0.40.10
Mg2+ (mg/dl)2.2 ± 0.22.2 ± 0.12.2 ± 0.10.19
UA (mg/dl)6.6 ± 1.66.2 ± 1.65.6 ± 1.5b,c<0.0001
  • a Data are mean ± SD. BUN, blood urea nitrogen; Ca2+, calcium; Cl, chloride; CO2, total carbon dioxide; Cr, creatinine; K+, potassium; Mg2+, magnesium; Na+, sodium; Pi, inorganic phosphorus; UA, uric acid.

  • b P < 0.05 versus lemonade.

  • c P < 0.05 versus control.