Table 2.

Baseline characteristics of individuals stratified by quartiles of serum calcium levela

Serum Calcium (mg/dl)P
<9.19.1 to 9.49.41 to 9.7>9.7
n (%)235 (23.8)218 (22.1)252 (25.5)280 (28.4)
Age (yr)68.5 ± 10.668.0 ± 10.966.7 ± 10.366.3 ± 11.50.07
Black race45 (19.1)52 (23.8)56 (22.2)89 (29.2)0.05
Diabetes116 (49.3)119 (54.5)145 (57.5)158 (56.4)0.27
ASCVD147 (62.5)131 (60.0)138 (54.7)174 (62.1)0.25
Active smokers59 (27.0)45 (22.3)78 (32.3)76 (28.7)0.13
SBP (mmHg)154.3 ± 25.3152.4 ± 24.2153.8 ± 28.4148.3 ± 27.50.03
DBP (mmHg)75.6 ± 15.776.1 ± 14.876.5 ± 15.274.6 ± 16.50.5
Use of calcium16 (6.8)15 (6.9)11 (4.4)14 (5.0)0.5
Use of ACEI/ARB132 (56.2)135(61.9)156 (61.9)167 (59.6)0.5
GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)29.2 (27.4 to 31.2)33.2 (31.4 to 35.1)35.5 (33.6 to 37.4)35.4 (33.5 to 37.5)<0.0001
CKD stage
    13 (1.3)2 (0.9)7 (2.8)6 (2.1)0.014
    215 (6.4)12 (5.5)16 (6.3)26 (9.3)
    3107 (45.5)126 (57.8)144 (57.1)163 (58.2)
    492 (39.1)70 (32.1)78 (30.9)71 (25.4)
    518 (7.7)8 (3.7)7 (2.8)14 (5.0)
BUN (mg/dl)35.7 ± 16.132.7 ± 15.330.7 ± 13.133.3 ± 17.10.006
Hemoglobin (g/dl)12.2 ± 1.912.4 ± 1.812.8 ± 1.712.8 ± 2.00.0009
Cholesterol (mg/dl)184.4 (178.7 to 190.3)183.2 (176.5 to 190.1)185.5 (179.6 to 191.7)188.2 (181.7 to 194.9)0.7
Albumin (g/dl)3.8 ± 0.43.6 ± 0.43.5 ± 0.53.4 ± 0.5<0.0001
Phosphorus (mg/dl)3.9 ± 0.93.8 ± 0.73.7 ± 0.73.9 ± 0.80.07
Bicarbonate (mmol/L)24.5 ± 3.925.4 ± 3.125.8 ± 3.225.9 ± 3.50.0001
Urinary protein (mg/24 h)905.0 (743.4 to 1101.8)614.8 (507.9 to 744.2)857.9 (702.6 to 1048.0)799.8 (670.1 to 954.6)0.03
  • a Data are means ± SD, n (% of total), or geometric mean (95% CI). Comparisons were made by ANOVA, Fisher exact test, or χ

  • 2 test.\