Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of individuals stratified by quartiles of serum phosphorus levela

Serum Phosphorus (mg/dl)P
<3.33.3 to 3.83.81 to 4.3>4.3
n (%)255 (25.9)287 (29.1)223 (22.6)220 (22.3)
Age (yr)68.0 ± 10.468.6 ± 10.767.9 ± 11.264.5 ± 11.10.0001
Black race63 (24.7)63 (21.9)54 (24.2)55 (25.0)0.8
Diabetes118 (46.3)157 (54.7)121 (54.3)142 (64.6)0.001
ASCVD151 (59.2)170 (59.2)133 (59.6)136 (61.8)0.9
Active smokers54 (22.7)69 (25.1)58 (28.3)77 (37.4)0.004
SBP (mmHg)150.9 ± 26.0152.5 ± 25.1150.8 ± 29.2154.3 ± 26.50.4
DBP (mmHg)75.7 ± 15.876.1 ± 15.174.8 ± 15.876.1 ± 16.10.8
Use of calcium16 (6.3)11 (3.8)8 (3.6)21 (9.5)0.019
Use of ACEI/ARB152 (59.6)165 (60.0)132 (59.2)131 (59.5)0.9
GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)39.0 (37.3 to 41.0)36.8 (35.1 to 38.5)32.3 (30.9 to 34.7)25.1 (23.4 to 26.9)<0.0001
CKD stages
    17 (2.7)5 (1.7)5 (2.2)1 (0.4)<0.001
    227 (10.6)25 (8.7)12 (5.4)5 (2.3)
    3168 (65.9)184 (64.1)112 (50.2)76 (34.5)
    448 (18.8)67 (23.3)90 (40.4)106 (85.4)
    55 (1.9)6 (2.1)4 (1.8)32 (14.5)
BUN (mg/dl)25.9 ± 10.330.8 ± 12.734.3 ± 14.243.1 ± 19.7<0.0001
Hemoglobin (g/dl)13.1 ± 1.813.0 ± 1.812.4 ± 1.911.8 ± 1.9<0.0001
Cholesterol (mg/dl)180.7 (175.1 to 186.4)185.4 (179.4 to 191.7)189.2 (182.7 to 196.0)187.7 (180.7 to 194.9)0.26
Albumin (g/dl)3.7 ± 0.43.7 ± 0.53.6 ± 0.53.5 ± 0.5<0.0001
Calcium (mg/dl)9.2 ± 0.59.2 ± 0.59.1 ± 0.69.0 ± 0.7<0.0001
Bicarbonate (mmol/L)25.9 ± 3.225.7 ± 3.425.4 ± 3.424.6 ± 4.10.0002
Urinary protein (mg/24 h)521.4 (435.8 to 623.7)618.3 (524.4 to 729.0)770.4 (628.1 to 945.0)1806.3 (1497.4 to 2178.9)<0.0001
  • a Data are means ± SD, n (% of total), or geometric mean (95% CI). ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; ASCVD, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; BUN, blood urea nitrogen; CI, confidence interval; CKD, chronic kidney disease; DBP, diastolic BP; SBP, systolic BP. Comparisons were made by ANOVA, Fisher exact test, or χ

  • 2 test.