Table 1.

Different shock types (84)

TypeEtiologyMechanismExamplePreloadCardiac OutputSystemic Vascular ResistanceFilling PressureManagement
HypovolemicDecreased effective blood volumeBlood loss, body water lossExsanguination; internal bleeding; external: diarrhea, excessive sweating; internal: third spacing, capillary leakFluid therapy: crystalloids, colloids, blood products
CardiogenicArrhythmia, decreased contractilityBradyarrhythmia/tachyarrhythmia cardiomyopathyVT/A-fib with RVR, ischemic CMAntiarrhythmics, inotropics
DistributiveVasodilationLow systemic vascular resistanceSepsis, anaphylaxis, endocrine: adrenal insufficiency↓/↔Fluid therapy, vasopressors, treating underlying source
ObstructiveCirculatory blockageInternal blockage, external compressionPulmonary embolism, tension pneumothorax, tamponade, tumor↑/↔↓/↔Resolution of obstruction
  • VT, ventricular tachycardia; A-fib, atrial fibrillation; RVR, rapid ventricular response; CM, cardiomyopathy.