Table 1.

Baseline characteristics of Black and non-Black randomized participants in the Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation trial

VariableBlack Total, n=224Non-Blacka Total, n=4177
Age, yr, mean (SD)61 (10)63 (9)
Men, no. (%)122 (54)2785 (67)
Current smoker, no. (%)29 (13)610 (15)
Duration of diabetes, yr, mean (SD)16.9 (9.3)15.7 (8.6)
Hypertension, no. (%)222 (99)4038 (97)
Myocardial infarction, no. (%)18 (8)424 (10)
Heart failure, no. (%)27 (12)625 (15)
Microvascular disease, %
 Retinopathy67 (30)1815 (43)
 Nephropathy224 (100)4177 (100)
 Neuropathy120 (54)2027 (49)
Atherosclerotic vascular disease, no. (%)b
 Coronary59 (26)1254 (30)
 Cerebrovascular29 (13)671 (16)
 Peripheral50 (22)996 (24)
Fracture, no. (%)37 (17)673 (16)
Amputation, no. (%)13 (6)221 (5)
BMI, kg/m2, mean (SD)34 (8)31 (6)
Systolic BP, mm Hg, mean (SD)142 (18)140 (16)
Diastolic BP, mm Hg, mean (SD)79 (10)78 (9)
HbA1c, %, mean (SD)8.4 (1.3)8.3 (1.3)
Cholesterol, mg/dl, mean (SD)
 Total181 (46)181 (50)
 LDL100 (39)97 (42)
 HDL46 (15)42 (12)
Triglycerides, mg/dl, mean (SD)168 (124)204 (142)
Baseline eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2, mean (SD)c
 2009 CKD-EPI creatinine55 (17)56 (18)
 2009 CKD-EPI creatinine without race-specific coefficient48 (15)56 (18)
 2021 CKD-EPI creatinine51 (14)59 (18)
UACR, mg/g, median (IQR)702 (409–1493)934 (471–1855)
Albuminuria, no (%)
 Normal0 (0)31 (0.7)
 Microalbuminuria36 (16)460 (11)
 Macroalbuminuria188 (84)3686 (88)
Drug therapy, no. (%)
 Insulin172 (77)2712 (65)
 Sulfonylurea62 (28)1206 (29)
 Metformin107 (48)2438 (58)
 GLP-1 receptor agonist15 (7)168 (4)
 DPP-4 inhibitor29 (13)722 (17)
 Statin149 (67)2887 (69)
 Antithromboticd126 (56)2498 (60)
 RAAS inhibitor222 (99)4173 (99.9)
β-Blocker100 (45)1670 (40)
 Diuretic138 (62)1919 (46)
  • BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; CKD-EPI, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration; UACR, urine albumin-creatinine ratio; IQR, interquartile range; GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide-1; DPP-4, dipeptidyl peptidase 4; RAAS, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

  • a Includes White, Asian, American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, multiple, other, and unknown.

  • b Some patients had more than one type of atherosclerotic disease.

  • c Baseline eGFR was available for 224 Black participants and 4176 non-Black participants. Baseline eGFR was recalculated using the 2021 CKD-EPI for 223 Black and 4176 non-Black participants on the basis of availability of serum creatinine at baseline.

  • d This includes antiplatelets and anticoagulants.