Table 2.

Ethical principles

Ethical PrincipleDescription
Maximizing benefitsPriority should be given to patients with highest needs and greatest capacity to benefit to maximize health benefits for all.
Treating people fairlyThose with equal need should have equal access to resources. Factors such as age, racialized background, ethnicity, disability, ability to pay, socioeconomic status, pre-existing health conditions, and perceived social worth should not be considered unless they are relevant to need and potential for benefit.
Prioritizing worst offPriority should be given to those with the greatest need first.
Procedural justiceDecisions should be evidence-based, defensible, transparent, and clearly communicated. Stakeholder input should be sought, and clear appeals mechanisms should be established.