Table 1.

Population, intervention, comparison, and outcome criteria

CategoryInclusion CriteriaExclusion Criteria
PopulationAdults (≥18 yr) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.Study populations that included pediatric subjects. Studies that only recruited individuals with a particular comorbidity (i.e., postacute coronary syndrome for cardiac rehabilitation or individuals with diabetes participating in a diabetes education and exercise program) were excluded.
InterventionAerobic exercise lasting for a minimum of 8 weeks with exercise frequency being at least twice per week. Individual exercise sessions must be at least 20 minutes in duration. The exercise intervention can be intradialytic or interdialytic.Studies with interventions consisting of resistance or flexibility/stretching exercises only with no aerobic exercise component were excluded.
ComparisonUsual care without an exercise intervention. The control group can partake in attention controls, such as support group meetings or sham exercises, such as breathing exercises and light stretching.Studies that applied any resistance or aerobic exercise intervention to the control/comparison arm.
OutcomeChange in any dialysis-related symptom over the course of the study period (restless legs syndrome, symptoms of depression and anxiety, sleep disturbance, fatigue, muscle cramps, pruritis, nausea, vomiting, decreased appetite, and pain).Symptoms not prespecified as a primary or secondary outcome in the primary study.
Study typeRandomized controlled trials.Observational or quasiexperimental studies.