Table 2.

Characteristics of included studies

StudyCountryN (control/exercise) Attrition Rate (%)Criteria% FemaleMean Time on Hemodialysis Months (SD)Mean Age (SD)
InclusionExclusionInterventionControlInterventionControl
Afshar et al. (22)Iran28 (14/14) (NR)HD >3 mo; age >20 yr; <2 missed HD sessions/moActive acute or uncontrolled illness; hospitalization last mo; drugs affecting cytokine levels; vascular access in lower extremity; BMI >25 kg/m2.07.6 (25.7)15.4 (24.9)51 (21)53 (19)
Carmack et al. (23)United States21 (11/10) (56)No physical or mental impairment that precluded submaximal exercise.Severe cardiac problems; leg vascular access; leg prostheses.4029.5a
Carney et al. (24)United States17 (7/10) (19)HD ≥6 mo; stable medication, diet, and dialysis; age 18–70 yr; no acute or uncontrolled disease.Must meet inclusion criteria.5330 (8.1)40 (13.2)36 (3)40 (5)
Cho et al. (25)South Korea24 (13/11) (14)Age ≥20 yr; HD ≥6 mo; HD thrice weekly; no hospitalization last 3 mo except for vascular access repair; no amputations or prostheses; able to communicate; able to ambulate and wear activity monitor.Active acute or uncontrolled illness; MI or unstable angina in past 12 mo; orthopedic disorders exacerbated by activity.2354.8 (96.4)61.4 (36.5)55 (11)59 (10)
Frih et al. (26)Tunisia41 (20/21) (18)Maintenance HDActive acute or uncontrolled illness; musculoskeletal disorders exacerbated by exercise; regular exercise before experiment.072.7 (12.7)73.6 (13.4)64 (3)65 (3)
Giannaki et al. (14)Greece22 (7/15) (8)HD ≥3 mo with adequate delivery and stable clinical condition; RLS; not treated with any medication for RLS before study.Diagnosed neuropathies or catabolic state within 3 mo before study; C-reactive protein blood levels >3.0 mg/lL; unable to exercise.2746.8 (15.6)43.2 (18)56 (12)56 (16)
Goldberg et al. (27)United States25 (11/14) (NR)Stable medication, diet, and dialysis schedule; no medical problems contraindicating participation.Unstable angina pectoris; cardiac arrhythmias; heart disease/failure; uncontrolled hypertension; retinal disease; diabetes; hypothyroidism.4422.2 (17.1)40.1 (29.7)38 (15)37 (12)
Jazi and Aliasgharpour (15)Iran25 (13/12) (19)Age 18–65 yr; HD ≥6 mo; no intensified disease last 6 mo; no regular exercise last 6 mo; no orthopedic problems; no cardiovascular disease; no severe shortness of breath; no heart failure.Not attending maximum of four exercise sessions; reluctance to continue with exercise program; participation in other exercise programs during intervention.3677.0 (55.4)65.0 (35.3)46 (10)45 (13)
Kouidi et al. (28)Greece31 (11/20) (14)No active acute or uncontrolled illness; no physical limitations preventing exercise; stable medication, diet, and dialysis; no antidepressants or psychotropic agents.Must meet inclusion criteria.7670.8 (58.8)74.4 (64.8)49 (12)52 (10)
Kouidi et al. (16)Greece44 (20/24) (12)HD thrice weekly for 4 h for ≥6 mo; no psychiatric, neurologic, cardiologic, or pulmonary disorders; no diabetes; no electrolytic instability; no musculoskeletal limitation.None listed.4173.2 (55.2)75.6 (58.8)46 (11)45 (10)
Mortazavi et al. (17)Iran26 (13/13) (NR)Hemodialysis ≥3 mo at least thrice weekly; presence of RLS; ferritin >100 ng/ml; transferrin saturation rate >20%.Musculoskeletal disorders preventing physical activity; history of ischemic heart disease; any catabolic process needing antibiotic therapy during last 3 mo.3132 (6)47 (13)
Ouzouni et al. (29)Greece33 (14/19) (6)HD thrice weekly, 4 h/session ≥6 mo before study.Active acute or uncontrolled illness; orthopedic problems limiting exercise.1892.4 (84.0)103.2 (72.0)47 (15)50 (11)
Poorsadet et al. (30)Iran38 (11/27) (NR)Lack of other chronic conditions; ability to communicate; age 16–60 yr; reading and writing literacy; HD ≥1 yr.Orthopedic problems; myocardial infarction in last mo; inability to complete 70% of program; active acute or uncontrolled illness; inability to perform exercise.1547a
Salehi et al. (32)Iran37 (17/20) (31)HD ≥3 mo, 4 h/session, ≥ twice weekly; age 18–76 yr; no physical problems in legs.Contraindications to exercise; PTH ≥1000 ng/L; diabetic foot; exercising ≤3 times/mo.3043.5 (39.2)36.9 (20.4)57 (9)54 (10)
van Vilsteren (31)The Netherlands96 (43/53) (7)Sedentary (ACSM criteria)Severe cardiovascular disease; β-blockers use; unstable angina; orthopedic complaints.3338.6 (49.0)46.8 (52.9)52 (15)58 (16)
  • NR, not reported; HD, hemodialysis; BMI, body mass index; MI, myocardial infarction; RLS, restless legs syndrome; PTH, parathyroid hormone; ACSM, American College of Sports Medicine.

  • a Mean age not available for groups.