Table 1.

Baseline characteristics by transplant status

VariablesTotalReceived a TransplantaDiedbCensoredc
(n=1056)(n=363)(n=413)(n=280)
Demographic characteristicsd
 Race/ethnicity
  Non-Hispanic White, n (%)789 (75)298 (82)309 (75)182 (65)
  Non-Hispanic Black, n (%)267 (25)65 (18)104 (25)98 (35)
 Sex (female), n (%)406 (38)141 (39)146 (35)119 (43)
 Age (in yr), mean (SD)57±1352±1461±1256±13
 Education (≤high school), n (%)496 (47)147 (41)212 (51)137 (49)
 Household income (<US$50,000), n (%)739 (74)214 (62)316 (81)209 (79)
 Insurance status, n (%)
  Public only277 (26)148 (41)62 (15)67 (24)
  Private only370 (35)98 (27)152 (37)120 (43)
  Public and private400 (38)113 (31)194 (48)93 (33)
 Occupation (≥skilled manual worker), n (%)512 (49)190 (52)201 (49)121 (43)
 Marital status (not married), n (%)512 (48)171 (47)195 (47)146 (52)
 Final status after KAS, n (%)e428 (41)130 (36)166 (40)132 (47)
Medical factors
 BMI, mean (SD)29.6±6.329.3±6.229.6±6.329.9±6.3
 Charlson Comorbidity Index, median (IQR)4.0 (3.0–5.0)4.0 (2.0–4.0)5.0 (4.0–6.0)4.0 (2.0–5.0)
 Type of dialysis, n (%)
  None366 (35)168 (46)87 (21)111 (39)
  Hemodialysis583 (55)158 (44)277 (67)148 (53)
  Peritoneal dialysis107 (10)37 (10)49 (12)21 (8)
 Dialysis duration in yr, median (IQR)0.2 (0.0–0.7)0.2 (0.0–0.7)0.3 (0.1–0.9)0.2 (0.0–0.7)
 Burden of kidney disease (range: 1–5), median (IQR)4.0 (3.0–4.7)3.7 (3.0–4.3)4.0 (3.0–4.7)3.7 (3.0–4.7)
 No. of potential donors, median (IQR)17 (11–29)20 (12–30)15 (10–28)18 (10–27)
 Have a potential living donor at T1 (yes), n (%)556 (54)225 (64)183 (46)148 (54)
Cultural factors
 Experience of discrimination (any), n (%)268 (26)70 (19)119 (29)79 (28)
 Perceived racism (range: 1–5), median (IQR)2.3 (2.0–2.8)2.3 (2.0–2.5)2.3 (2.0–2.8)2.4 (2.0–2.8)
 Medical mistrust (range: 1–5), mean (SD)2.4±0.52.4±0.52.5±0.52.5±0.5
 Trust in physician (range: 1–5), mean (SD)2.2±0.52.2±0.52.2±0.52.2±0.5
 Family loyalty (range: 8–80), mean (SD)49.8±9.449.5±9.649.6±9.250.7±9.5
 Religious objection to living-donor kidney transplant, n (%)
  No objection361 (35)139 (39)135 (34)87 (31)
  Mixed (neutral + no objection)100 (10)32 (9)50 (12)18 (6)
  Any objection580 (56)189 (53)218 (54)173 (62)
 Overall religiosity (range: 1–9), median (IQR)7.0 (4.5–9.0)6.0 (4.0–8.5)7.0 (5.0–9.0)7.5 (5.0–9.0)
Psychosocial characteristics
 Social support (range: 12–48), median (IQR)44.0 (39.0–48.0)45.0 (41.0–48.0)44.0 (38.0–47.0)43.0 (37.0–47.0)
 Self-esteem (range: 1–4), median (IQR)3.1 (2.9–3.5)3.1 (2.9–3.6)3.0 (2.8–3.5)3.1 (2.8–3.5)
 Mastery (range: 1–4), median (IQR)3.0 (2.7–3.1)3.0 (2.9–3.1)2.9 (2.7–3.1)3.0 (2.7–3.1)
 Internal locus of control (range: 1–6), mean (SD)4.0±1.13.8±1.14.1±1.04.1±1.1
 External locus of control (range: 1–6), mean (SD)3.4±0.83.3±0.73.5±0.93.5±0.8
 Anxiety (≥moderate), n (%)47 (4)13 (4)21 (5)13 (5)
 Depression (≥moderate), n (%)42 (4)11 (3)20 (5)11 (4)
Transplant knowledge and education
 Transplant knowledge (range: 0–27), median (IQR)22.0 (20–23.0)23.0 (21.0–24.0)21.0 (19.0–23.0)21.0 (19.0–23.0)
 No. learning activities (range: 0–8), median (IQR)5.0 (3.0–6.0)5.0 (4.0–6.0)4.0 (3.0–5.0)4.0 (3.0–5.0)
 Total h of learning activities (range: 0–185), median (IQR)10.3 (6.0–21.5)12.0 (7.0–29.0)10.0 (5.3–20.5)9.5 (4.5–19.0)
 Transplant concerns (range: 0–30), mean (SD)10.9±4.710.9±4.810.9±4.510.8±4.9
 Donor preference, n (%)
  Deceased donor135 (13)46 (13)50 (12)39 (14)
  Living donor815 (77)287 (79)313 (76)215 (77)
  No preference104 (10)29 (8)49 (12)26 (9)
 Willing to accept living donor volunteer, n (%)934 (90)333 (93)355 (88)246 (90)
 Willing to ask for living donor donation, n (%)582 (57)205 (58)222 (56)155 (57)
Years from evaluation to final follow-up, mean (range)3.1 (0.003–8.5)2.8 (0.07–7.7)3.3 (0.06–8.2)3.4 (0.003–8.5)
  • KAS, Kidney Allocation System; IQR, interquartile range, i.e., the interval between the 25th and 75th percentiles; UPMC, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center; UNOS, United Network for Organ Sharing.

  • a Includes receiving a living-donor transplant at UPMC (n=109; White=100, Black=9), deceased-donor transplant at UPMC (n=218; White=167, Black=51), living-donor transplant at another center (n=15; White=14, Black=1), deceased-donor transplant at another center (n=14; White=12, Black=2), unknown transplant type at another center (n=7; White=5, Black=2). Unknown transplant type because UPMC does not have access to the UNOS data for other transplant centers, and participants could not be reached for verification, despite several attempts.

  • b Died before or after waitlist but before receiving a transplant.

  • c Censoring includes closed by patient choice (n=26–13 before waitlisting and 13 after waitlisting), clinic rejected (n=28), clinic removed patient from waiting list (n=56), transferred to another center (n=19), still in transplant evaluation (n=8), incomplete evaluation (n=114), or still on waitlist (n=29).

  • d n=1 missing for transplant concerns; n=2 missing for occupation, transplant knowledge, donor preference; n=4 missing for family loyalty score; n=5 missing in medical mistrust index, trust in physician; n=6 missing in total social support; n=7 missing for internal and external locus of control, experienced discrimination in health care; n=8 missing for self-esteem scale; n=9 missing for total h engaged in learning activities; n=9 missing for insurance type; n=11 missing for racism in health care; n=15 missing for religious objection to living-donor kidney transplant; n=19 for willing to accept living donor volunteer; n=31 for having living donor; n=32 for willing to ask for living donor donation; n=53 missing/unknown for income.

  • e Final status after KAS refers to whether the patient’s ultimate outcome (i.e., transplant, died, censored) occurred either before or after the KAS policy changes of 2014 to all of the tables that include this variable.