Table 1.

Characteristics of adults who started maintenance KRT in the United States between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2017 by sex and attributed cause of kidney failure

CharacteristicsType 2 DiabetesType 1 DiabetesHypertensionGNCystic DiseaseOther
Total (N)
 Men345,75034,049241,99665,68917,954137,694
 Women275,51927,022171,24053,46915,31492,341
Median age at first kidney failure treatment, yr (IQR)a
 Men64 (55–72)52 (40–64)67 (54–78)56 (41–68)54 (46–64)66 (54–76)
 Women65 (57–73)52 (38–65)70 (58–79)53 (38–67)55 (47–64)66 (54–76)
Race/ethnicity, %b
 Non-Hispanic White
  Men505951617570
  Women455347507269
 Non-Hispanic Black
  Men222234201217
  Women302839271419
 Hispanic
  Men20151113109
  Women19141014108
 Other
  Men744743
  Women745844
Median income, $1000s (IQR)b
 Men47 (37–61)48 (38–61)47 (37–61)50 (40–66)53 (42–69)49 (39–65)
 Women44 (36–57)46 (37–59)46 (36–59)49 (39–63)52 (41–68)49 (39–63)
Insurance coverage, %b
 Medicare
  Men624562403361
  Women644667403463
 Medicaid
  Men11161012810
  Women142112171012
 Other
  Men223019395222
  Women162615365020
 None
  Men689977
  Women566755
Median BMI, kg/m2 (IQR) b
 Men28.8 (24.9–33.9)27.2 (23.5–32.0)26.4 (23.0–30.9)27.0 (23.5–31.7)27.0 (23.8–31.1)25.8 (22.4–30.1)
 Women30.8 (25.7–37.1)28.2 (23.6–34.4)26.9 (22.5–32.8)26.6 (22.3–32.5)26.6 (22.7–32.3)26.6 (22.2–32.4)
Diabetes, %c
 Men10010027171126
 Women10010031151028
Mean number of cardiovascular comorbidities (SD)d,e
 Men0.86 (0.98)0.64 (0.91)0.67 (0.89)0.38 (0.72)0.26 (0.60)0.66 (0.92)
 Women0.84 (0.96)0.62 (0.89)0.64 (0.86)0.31 (0.64)0.16 (0.47)0.61 (0.88)
COPD, %f
 Men96107411
 Women106106411
Smoking, %b
 Men688878
 Women466666
Cancer, %g
 Men5386419
 Women4365416
  • IQR, interquartile range; BMI, body mass index; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  • a P<0.05 for men versus women for all causes of kidney failure except type 1 diabetes (P=0.2).

  • b P<0.05 for men versus women for all causes of kidney failure.

  • c P<0.05 for men versus women for all nondiabetic causes of kidney failure.

  • d P<0.05 for men versus women for all causes of kidney failure except type 1 diabetes (P=0.1).

  • e Cardiovascular comorbidities defined as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, stroke or transient ischemic attack, and peripheral vascular disease.

  • f P<0.05 for men versus women for all causes of kidney failure except hypertension (P=0.6), type 1 diabetes (P=0.4), and other (P=0.07).

  • g P<0.05 for men versus women for all causes of kidney failure except type 1 diabetes (P=0.4).