Table 3.

Demographic and health characteristics associated with AKI and AKI severity

CharacteristicsAny AKI Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)AKI Severitya Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
UnadjustedAdjustedUnadjustedAdjusted
Age in 10 yr1.24 (1.18 to 1.30)1.09 (1.03 to 1.16)1.22 (1.17 to 1.28)1.08 (1.02 to 1.14)
Sex, reference = women2.71 (1.99 to 3.76)2.14 (1.54 to 3.03)2.68 (1.96 to 3.68)2.22 (1.61 to 3.13)
Race, reference = White
 Black1.72 (1.52 to 1.94)1.93 (1.69 to 2.20)1.77 (1.57 to 1.99)1.98 (1.74 to 2.25)
 Other1.10 (0.84 to 1.43)1.14 (0.85 to 1.51)1.10 (0.85 to 1.44)1.12 (0.85 to 1.47)
BMI category, reference = underweight/normal
 Overweight1.17 (0.97 to 1.42)1.17 (0.96 to 1.43)1.19 (0.99 to 1.43)1.17 (0.96 to 1.42)
 Obese1.37 (1.15 to 1.64)1.37 (1.13 to 1.68)1.39 (1.17 to 1.65)1.36 (1.13 to 1.66)
Smoking status, reference = never smoked
 Former smoker1.34 (1.17 to 1.52)1.24 (1.07 to 1.42)1.32 (1.16 to 1.50)1.21 (1.05 to 1.38)
 Current smoker0.91 (0.76 to 1.08)1.06 (0.88 to 1.27)0.90 (0.76 to 1.07)1.05 (0.88 to 1.25)
Hypertension2.29 (1.96 to 2.68)1.31 (1.10 to 1.57)2.24 (1.92 to 2.61)1.28 (1.08 to 1.53)
Diabetes mellitus type 21.69 (1.51 to 1.91)1.27 (1.11 to 1.45)1.67 (1.48 to 1.87)1.25 (1.10 to 1.42)
Cardiovascular disease1.33 (1.18 to 1.51)0.86 (0.75 to 1.00)1.31 (1.16 to 1.48)0.87 (0.76 to 1.01)
ACEI/ARB1.63 (1.44 to 1.84)1.22 (1.07 to 1.41)1.59 (1.41 to 1.79)1.21 (1.06 to 1.38)
Diureticsb1.85 (1.64 to 2.10)1.32 (1.14 to 1.52)1.82 (1.61 to 2.05)1.30 (1.14 to 1.49)
Anticoagulant1.25 (1.02 to 1.54)0.96 (0.76 to 1.21)1.21 (0.99 to 1.48)0.95 (0.76 to 1.18)
Immunosuppressants2.71 (1.27 to 5.91)2.19 (0.97 to 5.03)2.65 (1.32 to 5.32)2.10 (1.00 to 4.32)
β-blocker1.52 (1.34 to 1.72)1.05 (0.90 to 1.22)1.49 (1.32 to 1.68)1.06 (0.91 to 1.22)
Aspirin1.23 (1.06 to 1.43)0.94 (0.79 to 1.11)1.19 (1.03 to 1.38)0.91 (0.78 to 1.07)
eGFR category, reference = eGFR>90 ml/min per 1.73 m2
 61–90 ml/min per 1.73 m21.43 (1.21 to 1.69)1.37 (1.14 to 1.64)1.44 (1.22 to 1.70)1.41 (1.18 to 1.68)
 46–60 ml/min per 1.73 m22.99 (2.47 to 3.63)2.60 (2.10 to 3.23)2.86 (2.37 to 3.45)2.53 (2.05 to 3.12)
 30–45 ml/min per 1.73 m24.16 (3.32 to 5.23)3.33 (2.57 to 4.31)3.86 (3.10 to 4.79)3.16 (2.48 to 4.04)
 <30 ml/min per 1.73 m28.42 (5.82 to 12.36)7.28 (4.91 to 10.95)8.19 (5.93 to 11.32)7.36 (5.22 to 10.37)
  • Adjusted estimates adjust for covariates listed in the table. BMI, body mass index; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker.

  • a Severity is defined by increasing stage of AKI (no AKI; stage 1, 2, or 3 AKI; and AKI receiving KRT), where the odds ratio represents the odds of having a more severe AKI compared with a less severe one.

  • b Includes loop, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, and thiazides/other diuretics.