Table 1.

Demographic and health characteristics of the overall cohort and by AKI status

CharacteristicsOverall, n=5216No AKI, n=3561 (68%)AKI, n=1655 (32%)
Age, median (IQR), yr70 (61–76)69 (59–76)72 (64–77)
Race, no. (%)
 White2615 (50)1924 (54)691 (42)
 Black2308 (44)1427 (40)881 (53)
 Other293 (6)210 (6)83 (5)
Sex, no. (%), men4908 (94)3300 (93)1608 (97)
ADI,a median (IQR)52 (40–60)52 (40–60)52 (39–61)
BMI category, no. (%)
 Underweight/normal791 (15)576 (16)215 (13)
 Overweight1746 (34)1214 (34)532 (32)
 Obese2679 (51)1771 (50)908 (55)
Smoking status, no. (%)
 Never smoked2893 (56)2019 (57)874 (53)
 Former smoker1490 (29)944 (27)546 (33)
 Current smoker833 (16)598 (17)235 (14)
Hospital characteristics, no. (%)
 ICU1693 (33)855 (24)838 (51)
 Ventilator863 (17)278 (8)585 (35)
Comorbidities, no. (%)
 Cancer799 (15)529 (15)270 (16)
 Cardiovascular disease1588 (30)1014 (29)574 (35)
 Cerebrovascular disease726 (14)475 (13)251 (15)
 Chronic liver disease505 (10)352 (10)153 (9)
 Chronic lung disease1302 (25)865 (24)437 (26)
 Dementia657 (13)461 (13)196 (12)
 Diabetes mellitus type 22537 (49)1584 (45)953 (58)
 Hypertension3985 (76)2569 (72)1416 (86)
 Peripheral artery disease202 (4)131 (4)71 (4)
Charlson comorbidity score, mean (SD)2.4 (2.4)2.3 (2.4)2.7 (2.4)
Laboratory tests and vital signs, median (IQR)b
 Albumin, g/dl, n=50633.5 (3.1–3.9)3.5 (3.1–3.9)3.4 (3.0–3.8)
 Baseline eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m273 (57–89)77 (62–91)64 (48–80)
 Baseline serum creatinine, mg/dl1.1 (0.9–1.3)1.1 (0.9–1.2)1.2 (1.0–1.5)
 BP (diastolic), mm Hg, n=521476 (71–81)76 (71–82)75 (70–81)
 BP (systolic), mm Hg, n=5214133 (124–142)132 (123–141)134 (124–144)
 BUN, mg/dl, n=515418 (13–28)16 (12–21)31 (20–48)
 Hemoglobin, g/dl, n=507013.3 (11.8–14.5)13.4 (12.0–14.5)13.1 (11.3–14.5)
 Lymphocytes, %, n=480516 (10–24)18 (11–25)13 (8–20)
 Platelet count, ×109/L, n=5173194 (151–253)197 (153–255)188 (146–250)
 Serum bicarbonate, mEq/L, n=521224.0 (22.0–26.0)25.0 (22.6–27.0)23.0 (20.0–25.0)
 White blood cell count, ×109/L, n=50416.3 (4.8–8.4)6.1 (4.6–8.0)6.7 (5.1–9.1)
Medications, no. (%)
 ACEI/ARB1718 (33)1048 (29)670 (41)
 Antibiotics86 (2)58 (2)28 (2)
 Anticoagulant415 (8)264 (7)151 (9)
 Antiviral68 (1)48 (1)20 (1)
 Aspirin913 (18)589 (17)324 (20)
β-blockers1546 (30)955 (27)591 (36)
 Chemotherapy agents35 (0.7)21 (0.6)14 (0.8)
 Diuretics: loop629 (12)374 (11)255 (15)
 Diuretics: MRA214 (4)115 (3)99 (6)
 Diuretics: thiazide/other808 (16)466 (13)342 (21)
 Immunosuppressants27 (0.5)12 (0.3)15 (0.9)
 NSAID656 (13)465 (13)191 (12)
 Proton pump inhibitors1213 (23)832 (23)381 (23)
  • IQR, interquartile range; ADI, Area Deprivation Index; BMI, body mass index; ICU, intensive care unit; ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; MRA, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist; NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

  • a ADI is a measure of socioeconomic disadvantage, with a range from low to high disadvantage of zero to 100.

  • b Laboratory values are reported for those who had a measure. N with the measure is reported.