Table 1.

Risk factors associated with ARFa

Patient-RelatedProcedure-Related
Female genderLength of CPB
Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseaseCross-clamp time
DiabetesOff-pump versus on-pump
Peripheral vascular diseaseNonpulsatile flow
Renal insufficiencyHemolysis
Congestive heart failureHemodilution
LV ejection fraction <35%
Need for emergent surgery
Cardiogenic shock (IABP)
Left main coronary disease
  • a LV, left ventricular; IABP, intra-aortic balloon pump; CPB, cardiopulmonary bypass.