Table 2.

Characteristics of included screening tools and gold standard semi-structured diagnostic interviews examined

NameAbbrev.Number of ItemsDescriptionTime to Complete/Score
Gold standard semi-structured diagnostic interviews
 Mini International Neuropsychiatric InterviewMININAA short, structured diagnostic interview, developed jointly by psychiatrists and clinicians in the United States and Europe, for DSM-IV and ICD-10 psychiatric disorders.Administration: 15 min
 Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (38)SCID-INAA semi-structured interview administered by a trained mental health professional familiar with DSM-IV Axis I diagnostic criteria.Administration: 1–2 h
Screening tools
 Beck Depression Inventory II (13,39)BDI-II21Widely used, validated self-report tool designed to assess depression severity in adolescents and adults. Most widely studied instrument in the kidney failure population. Closely mirrors DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder, and includes questions related to cognitive, affective, and somatic symptoms.Respondent: 5–10 min Administrator: 5 min
 Beck Depression Inventory II Fast Screen (40)BDI-FS7Brief version of the BDI-II that excludes somatic symptoms. Designed to screen for major depressive disorder in medical patients.Respondent: <5 min Administrator: <3 min, can be staff
 Cognitive Depression Index (41)CDI15A subset of the BDI-II (first 15 items), eliminating items related to somatic symptoms. It was developed for use in patients with CKD, with the goal of reducing the likelihood of the overdiagnosis of depression.Respondent: 7–8 min Administrator: 5 min, These are estimates based on the BDI-II from which it is derived.
 Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression Scale (16,39)CES-D20Widely used, revised in 2004, evaluates depressive symptoms across four factors: depressive affect, well-being, somatic symptoms, and interpersonal relations.Respondent: <10 min Administrator: <10 min (can be scored during administration)
 Depression Inventory–Maintenance Hemodialysis (22)DI-MHDDeveloped specifically for patients with kidney failure.Respondent: 5 min Administrator: no information yet available.
 Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (27)ESASa1Single item that asks patients to rate depression from 0 (not depressed) to 10 (worst depression) (1).Respondent: minimal Administrator: minimal
 Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (20,42)Ham-D17Assesses the frequency and intensity of depressive symptoms. Developed in 1960, and last revised in 1967 (20).Administrator: 15–20 min
 Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale–Depression Subscale (17)HADS-D7Subscale of the 14-item HADS that includes ratings of physical, cognitive, and affective symptoms of depression (17).Respondent: ≤5 min (for entire HADS including anxiety items) Administrator: 1–2 min
 Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (18,39)GDS-1515Shortened version of the original 30-item GDS, assesses depressive symptoms in older adults, developed in 1982 (18,19).Respondent: 2–5 min Administrator: 2 min
 Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form - 36 (43)KDQOL SF-361The KDQOL SF-36 is a self-report measure developed for patients with kidney disease on dialysis. Six-options ranging from “all of the time” to “none of the time.” The included study tests the use of two single questions. (1) “Have you felt so down in the dumps that nothing could cheer you up?” (2) “Have you felt downhearted and blue?”Respondent: minimal Administrator: minimal
 Mental Health Inventory 5 (44)MHI55Also known as the mental health subscale of the SF-36. Six option Likert scale ranging from “all of the time” to “none of the time.”Respondent: <5 min Administrator: minimal
 Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (21,39)PHQ-99Developed in 2001. Screen of depression and severity. Widely used in the United States and internationally (21).Respondent: <3 min Administrator: minimal
 Self-Reporting Questionnaire (45)SRQ20Developed by the WHO to screen for a range of mental health disorders (45).Respondent: “a few min” Administrator: 1 min, yes/no additive
  • MINI, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview; NA, not applicable; DSM-IV, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV; ICD-10, 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems; SCID-I, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV; BDI-II, Beck Depression Inventory–II; BDI-FS, Beck Depression Inventory–Fast Screen; CDI, Cognitive Depression Index; CES-D, Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression Scale; DI-MHD, Depression Inventory–Maintenance Hemodialysis; ESAS, Edmonton Symptom Assessment System; Ham-D, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; HADS-D, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale–Depressive Subscale; GDS-15, Geriatric Depression Scale-15; KDQOL SF-36, Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form 36; SF-36, 36-item Short-Form Health Survey Questionnaire; MHI5, Mental Health Inventory 5; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire 9; SRQ, Self-Reporting Questionnaire; WHO, World Health Organization.

  • a The ESAS is a ten-item scale. However, only one item applies to depression.