Table 2.

Association of kidney injury indicators with death and disease progression in patients with coronavirus disease 2019

OutcomesExposed (No. of Events/No. of Patients)Unexposed (No. of Events/No. of Patients)Hazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)P Value
In-hospital death, n=555a
 Proteinuria20/1743/3464.42 (1.22 to 15.94)0.02
 Hematuria18/1125/4084.71 (1.61 to 13.81)0.02
 In-hospital AKI9/2116/4996.84 (2.42 to 19.31)<0.001
 Prehospital AKI3/822/5121.06 (0.29 to 3.91)0.92
 Any kidney injury23/2292/3205.01 (1.13 to 22.15)0.03
Progression to critical illness, n=520b
 Proteinuria24/15012/3372.61 (1.22 to 5.56)0.01
 Hematuria18/9418/3932.50 (1.23 to 5.08)0.01
 In-hospital AKI1/739/4801.58 (0.21 to 11.68)0.66
 Prehospital AKI2/538/4821.03 (0.22 to 4.75)0.97
 Any kidney injury27/20013/3161.89 (0.95 to 3.78)0.07
  • Hazard ratios of each variable were obtained using separate proportional hazard Cox models after adjustment for age, sex, disease severity at admission, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, troponin, d-dimer, lymphocyte count, and comorbidities. Comorbidities include CKD, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, chronic pulmonary disease, or malignant tumor history. In-hospital AKI was set as a time-dependent covariate.

  • a For the outcome of in-hospital death, 35 individuals for proteinuria, 35 individuals for hematuria, 35 individuals for in-hospital AKI, 35 individuals for prehospital AKI, and six individuals for any kidney injury were excluded due to missing data.

  • b For the outcome of progression to critical illness, 33 individuals for proteinuria, 33 individuals for hematuria, 33 individuals for in-hospital AKI, 33 individuals for prehospital AKI, and four individuals for any kidney injury were excluded due to missing data.