Table 2.

Pain, hematoma, and macroscopic hematuria complications stratified by region, year, and needle gauge

SubgroupPapers, nPain or Hematoma, nBiopsies, nEstimate95% Confidence IntervalI2, %Modifier Test: P Value
Pain
 America31014400.0110[0.00 to 0.06]76.5
 Asia711814850.0596[0.02 to 0.11]94.6
 Europe86614880.0455[0.02 to 0.09]88.30.24
 Pre-20006577630.0728[0.03 to 0.13]84.1
 2000–2009611519380.0427[0.01 to 0.09]96.2
 2010–201862217120.0212[0.00 to 0.06]85.30.21
 16 Gauge3136120.0230[0.00 to 0.08]85.6
 18 Gauge31068120.1274[0.06 to 0.22]93.70.02
 Overall1819444130.0429[0.02 to 0.07]93.8
Hematoma
 America1542850120.0947[0.03 to 0.18]95.7
 Asia19113666580.1319[0.07 to 0.22]99.3
 Europe2687715,9890.0924[0.04 to 0.16]98.60.67
 Pre-20001225720530.1249[0.04 to 0.24]97.4
 2000–20091676556390.1060[0.04 to 0.20]99.3
 2010–201834141919,9670.0980[0.05 to 0.16]98.90.88
 16 Gauge2342084230.0574[0.02 to 0.11]95.9
 18 Gauge953417280.1614[0.07 to 0.29]99.10.06
 Overall62244127,6590.1050[0.07 to 0.15]98.9
Macroscopic hematuria
 America1415,466122,7790.0481[0.03 to 0.07]97.3
 Asia2528073210.0397[0.03 to 0.05]84.4
 Europe2572227,5110.0244[0.02 to 0.04]93.50.05
 Pre-20001413823890.0518[0.03 to 0.07]43.5
 2000–20091644995430.0318[0.02 to 0.05]94.1
 2010–20183415,881145,6790.0305[0.02 to 0.04]99.30.10
 16 Gauge2223286140.0249[0.01 to 0.04]88.9
 18 Gauge97816590.0351[0.02 to 0.06]68.50.37
 Overall6416,468157,6110.0347[0.03 to 0.04]98.8