Table 1.

Recommendations for protocol biopsiesa

RecommendationAllograft Patient Population
Standard practice
    postimplantationAll recipients
    weeklyAll recipients with persistent DGF
    within 3 moAll highly sensitized/at-risk patients (unless clinical rejection has occurred)
    at time of detectionAny recipient with significantly increased urine or plasma markers of PPV
Strongly recommended
    6 to 12 moRecipients with high CNI exposure, H/O toxicity
    6 to 12 moRecipients with H/O prolonged DGF, rejection
Recommended for study (with interventional trials)
    1 to 3 moAll recipients
    6 to 12 moAll recipients
  • a DGF, delayed graft function; PPV, polyoma virus, CNI, calcineurin inhibitor; H/O, history of.