Table 1.

Baseline characteristics and concomitant medications of participants were similar between treatment groups across Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes risk categories

ParameterKidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes Risk Categorya
LowModerately IncreasedHighVery High
Placebo, n=1099Empagliflozin,bn=2223Placebo, n=675Empagliflozin,bn=1343Placebo, n=357Empagliflozin,bn=710Placebo, n=186Empagliflozin,bn=359
Men787 (72)1571 (71)490 (73)970 (72)254 (71)500 (70)136 (73)255 (71)
Age, yr62±961±864±964±966±966±866±867±8
BMI, kg/m230.5±5.230.5±5.231.0±5.230.7±5.330.7±5.430.6±5.330.2±5.330.6±5.7
HbA1c, %8.0±0.88.0±0.88.1±0.98.1±0.98.2±0.98.2±0.98.2±0.98.1±0.8
Systolic BP, mm Hg133±16132±15138±17137±17139±20139±19140±19141±18
Diastolic BP, mm Hg77±1077±977±1177±1076±1176±1076±1075±10
LDL cholesterol, mg/dl83±3485±3585±3485±3689±3988±3789±3990±40
eGFR (MDRD), ml/min per 1.73 m283±1684±1774±2074±2060±1961±2044±843±9
 ≥601099 (100)2223 (100)470 (70)926 (69)145 (41)286 (40)00
 <6000205 (30)417 (31)212 (59)424 (60)186 (100)359 (100)
UACR, mg/g
 <301099 (100)2223 (100)205 (30)417 (31)76 (21)139 (20)2 (1)10 (3)
 30–30000470 (70)926 (69)136 (38)285 (40)69 (37)126 (35)
 >3000000145 (41)286 (40)115 (62)223 (62)
UACR, median (IQR), mg/g7.1 (4.4−14.1)8.0 (5.3−14.1)43.3 (16.8−94.6)43.3 (17.7−89.3)141.4 (37.1−630.3)134.4 (39.8−484.4)406.2 (110.5−908.8)422.6 (114.0−1067.0)
Background medications
 ACE inhibitors/ARBs846 (77)1754 (79)556 (82)1119 (83)305 (85)585 (82)147 (79)299 (83)
 Diuretics405 (37)841 (38)295 (44)605 (45)172 (48)360 (51)110 (59)216 (60)
History of heart failure95 (9)181 (8)77 (11)146 (11)48 (13)84 (12)23 (12)50 (14)
Smoking status
 Never smoked464 (42)902 (41)260 (39)556 (41)144 (40)288 (41)80 (43)164 (46)
 Ex-smoker489 (45)967 (44)326 (48)623 (46)169 (47)353 (50)85 (46)164 (46)
 Currently smokes146 (13)354 (16)89 (13)164 (12)44 (12)69 (10)21 (11)31 (9)
Duration of diabetes, yr
 ≤135 (3)78 (4)11 (2)31 (2)2 (1)14 (2)4 (2)5 (1)
 >1–5216 (20)424 (19)103 (15)189 (14)41 (12)65 (9)10 (5)25 (7)
 >5–10301 (27)597 (27)159 (24)344 (26)69 (19)156 (22)35 (19)64 (18)
 >10547 (50)1124 (51)402 (60)779 (58)245 (69)475 (67)137 (74)265 (74)
Metformin use885 (81)1752 (79)514 (76)1022 (76)219 (61)476 (67)104 (56)172 (48)
Insulin use447 (41)933 (42)338 (50)648 (48)211 (59)412 (58)130 (70)232 (65)
  • BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; MDRD, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease; UACR, urinary albumin-creatinine ratio; IQR, interquartile range; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker.

  • a Sixty-eight patients were excluded as the subgroup variable was missing.

  • b Pooled. Data are n (%) or mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated.