Table 1.

Demographic characteristics, laboratory data, and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019

CharacteristicsAll Patients, N=1392Non-AKI, n=1293AKI Stage 1, n=42AKI Stage 2, n=22AKI Stage 3, n=35
nSummarynSummarynSummarynSummarynSummary
Clinical characteristics
 Age, yr139263 (50–71)129363 (49–70)4265 (56–74)2270 (60–79)3567 (62–75)
 Male patients, n (%)1392711 (51)1293644 (50)4229 (69)2214 (64)3524 (69)
 Fever on admission, n (%)1310334 (25)1229311 (25)3610 (28)174 (24)289 (32)
 Systolic BP, mm Hg1338130 (118–143)1245129 (118–142)40134 (117–146)20128 (117–143)33143 (130–159)
 Diastolic BP, mm Hg133880 (73–88)124580 (73–88)4080 (74–87)2079 (71–90)3385 (76–96)
 Severe disease, n (%)1392570 (41)1293501 (39)4227 (64)2215 (68)3527 (77)
 Smoking, n (%)139283 (6)129371 (5)426 (14)222 (9)354 (11)
 Any comorbidity, n (%)1392694 (50)1293638 (49)4224 (57)2212 (55)3520 (57)
  CKD139221 (2)129317 (1)423 (7)221 (5)350 (0)
  Chronic lung disease139277 (6)129366 (5)429 (21)220 (0)352 (6)
  Diabetes1392241 (17)1293218 (17)426 (14)226 (27)3511 (31)
  Hypertension1392499 (36)1293459 (35)4214 (33)229 (41)3517 (49)
  Tumor139262 (5)129357 (4)423 (7)222 (9)350 (0)
Concomitant other respiratory viral infection, n (%)1392351 (25)1293330 (26)425 (12)226 (27)3510 (29)
Laboratory data
 BUN, mg/dl139213 (9–17)129312 (9–16)4219 (11–33)2225 (17–38)3524 (16–29)
 Serum creatinine, mg/dl13920.8 (0.6–1.0)12930.8 (0.6–1.0)421.0 (0.7–1.2)221.0 (0.7–1.6)351.0 (0.8–1.2)
 eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2139292 (77–104)129392 (78–104)4280 (58–103)2272 (42–83)3578 (61–91)
 eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, n (%)1392159 (11)1293133 (10)4210 (24)228 (36)358 (23)
 Hematuria877354 (40)834327 (39)2212 (55)85 (63)1310 (77)
  1+877270 (31)834256 (31)226 (27)82 (25)136 (46)
  2+∼3+87784 (10)83471 (9)226 (27)83 (38)134 (31)
 Proteinuria877494 (56)834457 (55)2218 (82)87 (88)1312 (92)
  1+877433 (49)834405 (49)2215 (68)85 (63)138 (62)
  2+∼3+87761 (7)83452 (6)223 (14)82 (25)134 (31)
 Lymphopenia, n (%)1392772 (55)1293691 (53)4235 (83)2218 (82)3528 (80)
 Anemia, n (%)1392599 (43)1293552 (43)4228 (67)229 (41)3510 (29)
 D-dimer >0.5 mg/L, n (%)1320939 (72)1224849 (69)4136 (88)2121 (100)3433 (97)
 hs-CRP≥10 mg/L, n (%)1335987 (74)1239897 (72)4236 (86)2121 (100)3333 (100)
 LDH>245 U/L, n (%)1391931 (67)1292846 (65)4233 (79)2219 (86)3533 (94)
Outcomes, n (%)
 Intensive care unit1392140 (10)129366 (5)4226 (62)2219 (86)3529 (83)
 Mechanical ventilation1392284 (20)1293204 (16)4231 (74)2219 (86)3530 (86)
  Noninvasive1392259 (19)1293191 (15)4226 (62)2218 (82)3524 (69)
  Invasive1392109 (8)129348 (4)4224 (57)2213 (59)3524 (69)
 Vasopressor1392194 (14)1293119 (9)4227 (64)2218 (82)3530 (86)
 ECMO139211 (1)12935 (0)423 (1)221 (5)352 (6)
 Hospital length of stay, d139222 (14–31)129322 (15–31)4223 (12–33)2224 (14–33)3510 (7–18)
 In-hospital mortality, n (%)1392199 (14)1293128 (10)4226 (62)2217 (77)3528 (80)
  • Clinical characteristics and laboratory data were assessed on admission. Values for categorical variables are given as count (percentage); values for continuous variables are given as median (interquartile range). Other respiratory viral infection includes influenza virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus. Vasopressors include norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine. Severe disease was defined as either (1) respiratory rate >30/min, (2) oxygen saturation ≤93%, or (3) partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio ≤300 mm Hg. Lymphopenia is defined as lymphocyte count <1.0×109/L. Anemia is defined as a hemoglobin level of <13 g/dl in men and <12 g/dl in women. hs-CRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; LDH, lactose dehydrogenase; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.