Table 4.

Patient characteristics associated with recovery of kidney function within 12 mo of initiating dialysis for AKI

CharacteristicsNAdjusted Hazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)P Value
Demographics
 Year of dialysis initiation0.98 (0.98 to 1.00)<0.001
 Age, yr<0.001
  18–29294/519 (57%)Reference
  30–39652/1131 (58%)0.96 (0.83 to 1.12)
  40–491251/2486 (50%)0.79 (0.69 to 0.91)
  50–592263/5459 (41%)0.64 (0.56 to 0.73)
  60–692741/8076 (34%)0.54 (0.47 to 0.62)
  70–792483/8826 (28%)0.45 (0.39 to 0.52)
  80+1244/6101 (20%)0.33 (0.29 to 0.38)
 Sex<0.001
  Women4116/13,672 (30%)0.86 (0.83 to 0. 90)
  Men6812/18,926 (36%)Reference
 Race/ethnicity<0.001
  Asian154/534 (29%)0.82 (0.69 to 0.96)
  Black1406/4880 (29%)0.68 (0.64 to 0.72)
  Hispanic748/2312 (32%)0.82 (0.76 to 0.89)
  Native American52/157 (33%)0.72 (0.54 to 0.95)
  White8568/24,715 (35%)Reference
 Body mass index, kg/m2<0.001
  <18.5347/1369 (25%)0.78 (0.70 to 0.87)
  18.5–24.993009/10,130 (30%)Reference
  25–29.993145/8844 (36%)1.25 (1.19 to 1.32)
  ≥304320/11,915 (36%)1.29 (1.24 to 1.36)
  Missing107/340 (31%)1.07 (0.88 to 1.30)
 Neighborhood poverty, %0.29
  <13.87500/22,247 (34%)Reference
  13.8 to <201777/5129 (35%)1.00 (0.95 to 1.05)
  20 to <401438/4475 (32%)0.96 (0.90 to 1.02)
  ≥4091/362 (25%)0.83 (0.67 to 1.02)
  Missing122/385 (32%)0.94 (0.78 to 1.13)
 Region<0.001
  Midwest3463/10,145 (34%)0.91 (0.87 to 0.96)
  Northeast1923/7170 (27%)0.76 (0.72 to 0.80)
  South3770/10,088 (37%)Reference
  West1770/5191 (34%)0.90 (0.84 to 0.95)
  Unknown2/4 (50%)1.60 (0.44 to 5.88)
Comorbidities
 Congestive heart failure<0.001
  Yes2657/11,402 (23%)0.66 (0.63 to 0.70)
  No8271/21,196 (39%)Reference
 Atherosclerotic heart disease + other0.05
  Yes3896/13,910 (28%)0.96 (0.92 to 1.00)
  No7032/18,688 (38%)Reference
 Hypertension<0.001
  Yes7416/23,667 (31%)0.93 (0.89 to 0.97)
  No3512/8931 (39%)Reference
 Diabetes mellitus<0.001
  Yes3883/12,933 (30%)0.91 (0.87 to 0.95)
  No7045/19,665 (36%)Reference
 Cancer<0.001
  Yes1246/4430 (28%)0.78 (0.74 to 0.83)
  No9682/28,168 (34%)Reference
 Amputations0.007
  Yes258/958 (27%)0.84 (0.74 to 0.95)
  No10,670/31,640 (34%)Reference
 Peripheral vascular disease0.33
  Yes1285/4775 (27%)0.98 (0.92 to 1.04)
  No9643/27,823 (35%)Reference
 Cerebrovascular accident/transient ischemic attack0.04
  Yes845/3210 (26%)0.93 (0.86 to 1.00)
  No10,083/29,388 (34%)Reference
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease0.002
  Yes1304/4826 (27%)0.91 (0.86 to 0.97)
  No9624/27,772 (35%)Reference
 Poor functional status<0.001
  Yes2027/8.440 (24%)0.70 (0.66 to 0.74)
  No8901/24,158 (37%)Reference
Laboratory values
 Albumin, g/dl0.004
  <3.56656/19,650 (34%)1.11 (1.04 to 1.17)
  ≥3.51428/4490 (32%)Reference
  Missing2844/8458 (34%)1.08 (1.01 to 1.16)
 Hemoglobin, g/dl<0.001
  <116904/22,396 (31%)0.64 (0.61 to 0.68)
  11–121375/3738 (37%)0.81 (0.75 to 0.87)
  >121483/3040 (49%)Reference
  Missing1166/3424 (34%)0.67 (0.61 to 0.72)
Care
 History of nursing home0.03
  Yes1345/5562 (24%)0.93 (0.87 to 0.99)
  No9583/27,063 (35%)Reference
 Nephrology care, mo<0.001
  None8013/20,053 (40%)Reference
  0–121310/5990 (22%)0.51 (0.49 to 0.55)
  >12402/2409 (17%)0.42 (0.38 to 0.47)
  Unknown1203/4146 (29%)0.72 (0.68 to 0.76)
  • Fine and Gray cumulative incidence model censored at 12 mo, end of the follow-up period, or transplant, with death as a competing risk. Column N contains the number of patients recovering within 12 mo divided by the total number of patients in that group and the percentage recovered. Comorbidities and history of nursing home indicate that the patient had the comorbidity and/or had been in a nursing home. Adjusted for covariates of year of dialysis initiation, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, neighborhood poverty, region, comorbidities, laboratory values, and care. P value for year of dialysis initiation is from a one-degree of freedom test of linear trend. The other P values are from tests with multiple degrees of freedom when more than two groups are present. All P values are two tailed.