Table 2.

Summary of adverse events of calcineurin inhibitors among selected trials evaluating calcineurin inhibitors in lupus nephritis

TrialCalcineurin Inhibitor UsedMost Common AEs
Moroni et al. 2006 (11)CyclosporinHypertension (7/36), infection (7/36), arthralgia (14/36), gastrointestinal disorders (11/36)
Bao et al. 2008 (18)Tacrolimus (with MMF)GI syndrome (2/20), leukopenia (2/20), new HTN (3/20), pneumonia (1/20)
Zavada et al. 2010 (10)CyclosporinIncreased BP (10/19), transient increase in serum creatinine (3/19)
Li et al. 2012 (13)TacrolimusSevere infection (2/20), hyperglycemia (5/20)
Yap et al. 2012 (17)TacrolimusInfection (4/16), acute tacrolimus nephrotoxicity (2/16), worsening hypertension (1/16), new DM (1/16)
Mok et al. 2013 (22)Tacrolimus (with MMF)Infection not requiring hospitalization (12/21), diarrhea (4/21).
Liu et al. 2015 (19)Tacrolimus (with MMF)Pneumonia (13/181), any infection (91/181), upper respiratory infection (23/181), diarrhea (14/81), new-onset HTN (10/81), serious AE (13/181), withdrawn because of AE (10/181)
Mok et al. 2016 (14)TacrolimusMinor infection (12/74), tremor (15/74), reversible increase in serum creatinine by 30% (10/74)
Zhang et al. 2017 (21)Tacrolimus (with MMF)Infection (12/116), leukopenia (9/116)
Rovin et al. 2019 (27)Voclosporin (with MMF)Low-dose VCS: infection (11/89), death (10/89), study discontinuation from AE (16/89), AKI (4/89); high-dose VCS: infection (12/88), death (2/88), study discontinuation from AE (14/88)
  • AE, adverse event; MMF, mycophenolate mofetil; GI, gastrointestinal; HTN, hypertension; DM, diabetes mellitus; VCS, voclosporin.