Table 2.

Summary of baseline characteristics of major GLP-1 RA trials

Clinical Trial
Cardiovascular Outcome TrialDiabetic Trial
ELIXALEADEREXSCELHARMONYSUSTAIN-6PIONEER 6REWINDAWARD-7
DrugLixisenatideLiraglutideExenatideAlbiglutideSemaglutideSemaglutideaDulaglutideDulaglutide
No. of patients6068934014,7529463329731839901577
Age, yr6064626465666665
Duration of DM, yr9.212.812.01414.114.710.518
BMI, kg/m23033323233323232
HbA1c, %7.78.78.08.78.78.27.38.6
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, %1008173100838531NR
Heart failure, %2214162024128.5NR
Reduced eGFR, %b2525222329272296
Mean eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m27680767980747538
UACR<30 mg/g, %746479NRNR676522
UACR 30–300 mg/g, %192617NRNR33c2733
UACR≥300 mg/g, %7104NRNR845
Insulin, %39454659586124100
Sulfonylureas, %33513729433246NR
ACEi/ARB, %8583808284NR8194
Diuretics, %334244423194671
  • GLP-1 RA, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist; ELIXA, Evaluation of Lixisenatide in Acute Coronary Syndrome;  LEADER, Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results; EXSCEL, Exenatide Study of Cardiovascular Event Lowering Trial;  HARMONY, Effect of Albiglutide, When Added to Standard Blood Glucose Lowering Therapies, on Major Cardiovascular Events in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; SUSTAIN-6, Trial to Evaluate Cardiovascular and Other Long-Term Outcomes With Semaglutide in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes; PIONEER 6, A Trial Investigating the Cardiovascular Safety of Oral Semaglutide in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes; REWIND, Researching Cardiovascular Events With a Weekly Incretin in Diabetes; AWARD-7, Dulaglutide versus insulin glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate-to-severe CKD; DM, diabetes mellitus; BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; NR, not reported; UACR, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio; ACEi, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker.

  • a Oral form of semaglutide.

  • b eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2.

  • c Combination of UACR 30–300 mg/g and UACR≥300 mg/g.