Table 3.

Association between benzodiazepines and mortality in patients initiating hemodialysis (n=69,368) between 2013 and 2014

ExposureNo. of DeathsAny, aHR (95% CI)Short Acting, aHR (95% CI)Long Acting, aHR (95% CI)
Benzodiazepine16,981
 Unadjusted1.52 (1.41 to 1.64)1.73 (1.60 to 1.88)0.83 (0.67 to 1.02)
 Adjusted1.31 (1.23 to 1.40)1.45 (1.35 to 1.56)0.84 (0.72 to 0.99)
LME per milligram higher1.05 (1.03 to 1.07)0.98 (0.91 to 1.05)
Alprazolam (0.5 LME)1.33 (1.17 to 1.51)
Lorazepam (1.0 LME)2.06 (1.82 to 2.34)
Temazepam (10 LME)1.48 (1.23 to 1.80)
Clonazepam (0.25 LME)0.73 (0.56 to 0.94)
Diazepam (5 LME)1.00 (0.69 to 1.44)
  • Use of benzodiazepines was treated as time varying, and all models were adjusted. The results below are from three separate models; all models were adjusted for age, sex, race, prescription (antidepressants and CNS depressants), and comorbidities. CNS depressants included sedatives, muscle relaxants, and antipsychotics. Comorbidities included diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, COPD, smoking history, cancer, drug abuse, inability to ambulate, institutionalized, and obesity. In the short-acting benzodiazepine model, those taking long-acting benzodiazepines were treated as unexposed. Similarly, in the long-acting benzodiazepine model, those taking short-acting benzodiazepines were treated as unexposed. LME, lorazepam milligram equivalent.