Table 4.

Association between benzodiazepines and mortality in patients initiating hemodialysis (n=69,368) between 2013 and 2014 stratified by age, sex, race, and opioid codispensing

ExposureNo. of DeathsFollow-Up Time, person-yrUnadjusted aHR (95% CI)Adjusted aHR (95% CI)P Value for Interaction
Any benzodiazepine0.001
 No opioid/no benzodiazepine2556182,800ReferenceReference
 No opioid/benzodiazepine48541,2731.32 (1.20 to 1.44)1.22 (1.13 to 1.32)
 Opioid/no benzodiazepine2071141,526ReferenceReference
 Opioid/benzodiazepine19081052.35 (2.04 to 2.71)1.66 (1.46 to 1.90)
Short-acting benzodiazepine<0.001
 No opioid/no benzodiazepine2514174,636ReferenceReference
 No opioid/benzodiazepine42031,1861.50 (1.36 to 1.65)1.34 (1.23 to 1.45)
 Opioid/no benzodiazepine2094143,450ReferenceReference
 Opioid/benzodiazepine16761812.74 (2.35 to 3.19)1.90 (1.65 to 2.18)
Long-acting benzodiazepine0.72
 No opioid/no benzodiazepine2305157,870ReferenceReference
 No opioid/benzodiazepine6710,2800.74 (0.58 to 0.94)0.83 (0.69 to 1.00)
 Opioid/no benzodiazepine2238147,590ReferenceReference
 Opioid/benzodiazepine2320411.11 (0.74 to 1.67)0.89 (0.64 to 1.24)
  • Use of benzodiazepines and other medications was treated as time varying, and all models were adjusted. The results below are from three separate models; all models were adjusted for age, sex, race, prescription (antidepressants and CNS depressants), and comorbidities. CNS depressants included sedatives, muscle relaxants, and antipsychotics. Comorbidities included diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, COPD, smoking history, cancer, drug abuse, inability to ambulate, institutionalized, and obesity.