Table 3.

Associations of patient-level and center-level characteristics with listing for kidney transplantation within 2 years of starting dialysis

VariableaNAdjusted Hazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)P Value
Patient variablesb
 Age, yr<0.001
  18–29861
  30–391370.8 (0.56 to 1.12)
  40–492800.64 (0.46 to 0.89)
  50–594620.35 (0.25 to 0.49)
  60–642900.27 (0.18 to 0.41)
  65–757150.15 (0.1 to 0.23)
 Sex
  Men12851
  Women6850.82 (0.68 to 0.99)0.04
 Ethnic group0.002
  White15661
  Asian2331.42 (1.12 to 1.79)
  Black1461.04 (0.76 to 1.43)
  Other251.56 (0.85 to 2.87)
 BMI<0.001
  <201430.85 (0.6 to 1.21)
  20–<255611
  25–<305581.15 (0.93 to 1.42)
  30–<353690.88 (0.67 to 1.14)
  35–<402000.48 (0.33 to 0.7)
  ≥401410.15 (0.08 to 0.3)
 Dialysis modality
  Hemodialysis16031
  Peritoneal dialysis3671.34 (1.1 to 1.64)0.004
 Diabetes<0.001
  No10851
  Type 11760.76 (0.57 to 1.02)
  Type 27090.62 (0.49 to 0.79)
 Peripheral vascular disease
  No17641
  Yes2060.6 (0.37 to 0.96)0.04
 Heart disease
  No15201
  Yes4510.8 (0.59 to 1.09)0.16
 Heart failure
  No17971
  Yes1730.58 (0.36 to 0.93)0.03
 Blood-borne viruses
  No19061
  Yes640.36 (0.18 to 0.71)0.004
 Malignancy
  No16771
  Yes2930.33 (0.2 to 0.53)<0.001
 Smoking0.05
  No7841
  Current3160.76 (0.58 to 1.0)
  Ex-smoker5821.17 (0.95 to 1.45)
  Do not know2891.06 (0.82 to 1.36)
Socioeconomic variables
 Employment<0.001
  Working full time/part time3311
  Long-term sick/disabled6060.54 (0.43 to 0.68)
  Retired from paid work8140.58 (0.42 to 0.8)
  Unemployed1440.77 (0.56 to 1.06)
  Other750.74 (0.5 to 1.1)
 Accommodation0.009
  Owned by you (outright or with a mortgage)10351
  Other1260.81 (0.58 to 1.13)
  Part rent, part owned (shared ownership)471.07 (0.64 to 1.8)
  Rented privately from council/housing association7620.76 (0.61 to 0.94)
 Car ownership
  No6190.73 (0.6 to 0.9)0.003
  Yes13511
 Education0.01
  GCSE, A level or NVQ 1–37491.05 (0.85 to 1.3)
  Degree, higher or NVQ 4–53051.38 (1.07 to 1.79)
  No qualifications9161
Center-level variables
Consultant nephrologists
  ≤6301
  >6411.26 (1.0 to 1.59)0.05
 MDT
  No171
  Yes541.23 (0.99 to 1.52)0.06
Written protocol for listing
  No211
  Yes500.72 (0.58 to 0.9)0.003
  • BMI, body mass index; GCSE, General Certificate of Secondary Education; NVQ, National Vocational Qualification; MDT, multidisciplinary team.

  • a Derived using multivariable Cox regression and multiple imputation; 20 imputed datasets were modeled separately and then combined to produce final parameter estimates.

  • b Missing data were imputed for BMI (n=220), comorbidity (n=22), and socioeconomic variables (n=104).