Table 2.

Factors associated with short-acting and long-acting benzodiazepines among adults initiating hemodialysis (n=69,368) between 2013 and 2014

FactorBenzodiazepine
Short ActingLong Acting
aHR (95% CI)P ValueaHR (95% CI)P Value
Age, per 10-yr older1.05 (1.03 to 1.07)<0.0010.90 (0.87 to 0.93)<0.001
Women1.32 (1.27 to 1.37)<0.0011.35 (1.26 to 1.45)<0.001
White1.73 (1.65 to 1.82)<0.0011.74 (1.59 to 1.89)<0.001
Opioids1.66 (1.59 to 1.74)<0.0011.11 (1.03 to 1.20)0.01
Antidepressant1.89 (1.81 to 1.96)<0.0011.59 (1.47 to 1.71)<0.001
CNS depressant1.73 (1.66 to 1.80)<0.0011.69 (1.56 to 1.82)<0.001
Year of dialysis initiation
 2013 versus 20141.11 (1.07 to 1.16)<0.0011.30 (1.21 to 1.40)<0.001
BMI, per 10-kg/m2 higher0.95 (0.92 to 0.97)<0.0010.97 (0.93 to 1.02)0.24
Comorbidity
 Diabetes0.92 (0.88 to 0.97)0.0030.99 (0.90 to 1.08)0.76
 Cardiovascular disease1.06 (1.02 to 1.10)0.0090.95 (0.88 to 1.03)0.22
 Peripheral vascular disease1.03 (0.98 to 1.09)0.251.09 (0.98 to 1.21)0.13
 Hypertension0.97 (0.91 to 1.03)0.270.99 (0.88 to 1.12)0.90
 COPD1.20 (1.13 to 1.27)<0.0011.28 (1.16 to 1.43)<0.001
 Tobacco use1.09 (1.01 to 1.17)0.021.19 (1.05 to 1.35)0.01
 Cancer1.10 (1.02 to 1.18)0.011.02 (0.88 to 1.17)0.80
 Drug use1.10 (0.97 to 1.24)0.141.03 (0.83 to 1.28)0.75
 Inability to ambulate1.09 (1.04 to 1.15)0.0021.11 (1.00 to 1.23)0.06
 Institutionalized1.08 (1.01 to 1.15)0.030.90 (0.79 to 1.02)0.11
 No comorbidity0.87 (0.73 to 1.04)0.130.91 (0.68 to 1.23)0.56
Cause of kidney failure
 DiabetesReferenceReference
 Hypertensive kidney disease1.04 (0.99 to 1.09)0.151.03 (0.93 to 1.14)0.53
 GN1.01 (0.93 to 1.10)0.781.22 (1.05 to 1.42)0.01
 Other1.06 (0.99 to 1.13)0.081.20 (1.06 to 1.35)0.005
Employment status
 Full timeReferenceReference
 Part time0.95 (0.76 to 1.18)0.641.24 (0.84 to 1.84)0.28
 Unemployed0.98 (0.84 to 1.14)0.761.31 (0.98 to 1.75)0.07
 Retired1.05 (0.90 to 1.23)0.521.38 (1.02 to 1.85)0.04
 Disabled1.13 (0.97 to 1.32)0.131.67 (1.25 to 2.24)0.001
 Other0.90 (0.75 to 1.08)0.261.22 (0.88 to 1.71)0.24
Bureau of economic analysis regions
 Midwest0.89 (0.80 to 0.99)0.030.73 (0.60 to 0.88)0.003
 Great Lakes0.96 (0.86 to 1.06)0.400.93 (0.77 to 1.11)0.41
 Plains0.78 (0.69 to 0.88)<0.0010.77 (0.62 to 0.96)0.02
 Southeast1.03 (0.93 to 1.13)0.590.93 (0.78 to 1.11)0.42
 Southwest0.93 (0.84 to 1.04)0.200.74 (0.61 to 0.89)0.004
 Rocky0.73 (0.61 to 0.88)0.0020.76 (0.55 to 1.04)0.09
 Far West0.98 (0.88 to 1.09)0.690.70 (0.58 to 0.85)0.001
  • All factors were included in a single Cox proportional hazards model with time from hemodialysis initiation to the first dispensed prescription for a short-acting or long-acting benzodiazepines as the outcome. aHR, adjusted hazard ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval.