Table 1.

Baseline characteristics by CKD status

CharacteristicNo CKD, n=196CKD, n=134
Age, yr76±681±7
Women, n (%)109 (56)68 (51)
Race, n (%)
 Black41 (21)23 (17)
 White148 (76)109 (81)
 Other7 (4)2 (2)
Education, n (%)
 High school or less61 (31)44 (33)
 College82 (42)63 (47)
 Postgraduate53 (27)27 (20)
Body mass index, kg/m229±729±5
Diabetes, n (%)36 (18)29 (22)
Neuropathy, n (%)22 (11)15 (11)
Peripheral arterial disease, n=327, n (%)7 (4)1 (1)
Hypertension, n=329, n (%)114 (59)85 (63)
Stroke, n=329, n (%)4 (2)3 (2)
Cardiovascular disease, n (%)7 (4)16 (12)
Comorbidities (global health score), n (%)
 040 (20)15 (11)
 157 (29)41 (31)
 265 (33)45 (34)
 3+34 (17)33 (25)
Medication count4 (2–6)5 (3–7)
Diuretic use, n (%)23 (12)30 (22)
eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m276±1045±11
Serum bicarbonate, mEq/L26±225±3
Acidosis, n (%)a26 (13)20 (15)
Hemoglobin, g/dl (n=318)13.6±1.213.1±1.7
Mean arterial pressure, n=323, mm Hg97±1094±11
Exercise (in past 30 d), n=320, n (%)152 (79)93 (73)
Walking while talking variables
 Speed, cm/s75±2365±24
 Cadence, steps per 1 min84±1979±19
 Step length, cm53±1148±12
 Swing, %33±531±5
 Stance, %67±569±5
 Double support, %34±837±9
 Step time SD, s0.04 (0.02–0.07)0.05 (0.03–0.1)
 Swing time SD, s0.03 (0.02–0.06)0.04 (0.03–0.08)
 Alphabet recited correctly, no. of letters7±37±3
  • Data are expressed as mean ± SD, median (interquartile range), or count (percentage). CKD is defined as eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2.

  • a Acidosis defined as serum bicarbonate <23 mEq/L.