Table 1.

Characteristics of participants in the Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with CKD (4C) study before discontinuation of RAASi

CharacteristicRAASi Use at Baseline or Start during Follow-Up (n=380)Population Selected for Current Analysis (n=69a)Case-Control Study Cohorts
Characteristics at Enrollment in 4C StudyCharacteristics at Enrollment in 4C StudyCharacteristics at Last Visit before RAASi DiscontinuationPatients Who Discontinued RAASi (n=50)Matched Controls on Continued RAASi (n=50)
Age, yr12.5 (3.3)11.5 (3.2)13.7 (3.2)14.3 (3.1)14.4 (3.8)
Female, n (%)132 (35)23 (33)23 (33)15 (30)17 (34)
Diagnosis, n (%)
 CAKUT244 (64)51 (74)51 (74)36 (72)33 (66)
 Other136 (36)18 (26)18 (26)14 (28)17 (34)
Systolic BP, mm Hg112 (15)110 (14)112 (16)114 (16)114 (13)
eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m230 (11)30 (9)27 (12)28 (12)28 (13)
eGFR slope, ml/min per 1.73 m2 per yrbN/AN/A−1.5 (3.7)−1.5 (3.3)−1.8 (2.5)
Albuminuria, mg/g327 (84–1128)395 (111–1184)405 (151–1464)360 (165–1544)311 (63–962)
Serum potassium, meq/L4.6 (0.6)4.6 (0.5)4.6 (0.6)4.6 (0.6)4.6 (0.5)
RAASi use, n (%)
 ACE inhibitor268 (71)63 (91)63 (91)45 (90)49 (98)
 ARB55 (14)6 (9)6 (9)5 (10)1 (2)
  • Values for continuous variables are described as mean±SD or median (interquartile range); values for categorical variables as number (percentage). RAASi, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition; CAKUT, congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract; N/A, not applicable, no eGFR data were available before enrolment into the 4C study; ACE, angiotensin-converting enzyme; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker.

  • a At enrolment in 4C study: eGFR n=65, albuminuria n=64. At last visit before RAASi discontinuation: eGFR n=65, potassium n=66. No missing values in other variables.

  • b eGFR slope is either the change in eGFR before RAASi discontinuation (in the patients who discontinued RAASi), or eGFR change before the matched visit (for patients in the matched control group).