Table 2.

Patient characteristics categorized according to the presence of hypogonadism and correlates of total testosterone in CKD male patients

CharacteristicsEugonadal (n = 161)Hypogonadal (n = 78)P
Age (years)54 (30 to 73)52 (30 to 73)0.61
History of CVD (%)27440.01
Diabetes (%)1636<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)26.1 ± 2.625.7 ± 2.90.43
Systolic BP (mmHg)133 (110 to 157)135 (113 to 185)0.002
Diastolic BP (mmHg)83 (71 to 93)84 (71 to 97)0.12
Smoking (%)45.942.30.63
eGFR (ml/min)58 (5 to 106)23 (7 to 99)<0.001
24-hour proteinuria (g/day)1.60 ± 0.781.89 ± 1.100.19
Hemoglobin (g/dl)11.7 (7.0 to 16.8)11.0 (7.0 to 16.9)<0.001
Serum albumin (g/dl)4.0 (3.2 to 4.8)4.0 (3.4 to 4.8)0.67
CRP (mg/l)11.2 (3.2 to 37.0)18.3 (4.0 to 39.0)<0.001
Serum calcium (mg/dl)8.5 (7.1 to 10.0)8.25 (7.0 to 9.7)0.005
Serum phosphate (mg/dl)4.8 ± 1.35.8 ± 1.7<0.001
PTH (pg/ml)113 ± 77179 ± 105<0.001
Flow-mediated dilation (%)7.2 (4.6 to 9.7)6.2 (4.0 to 8.2)<0.001
Nonflow-mediated dilation (%)13.0 (12.5 to 13.2)12.8 (12.0 to 13.0)0.02
Total testosterone (nmol/L)13.8 (12.4 to 16.3)5.4 (3.1 to 7.3)
Free testosterone (pg/ml)32.5 (33.3 to 72.6)14.2 (1.23 to 80.5)<0.001
  • Hypogonadism was defined on the basis of total testosterone < 10 nmol/L. CKD, chronic kidney disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; CVD, cardiovascular disease; BMI, body mass index; CRP, C-reactive protein; PTH, parathyroid hormone.