Table 1.

Demographic and clinical characteristics of CKD male patients included in the study according to the K/DOQI CKD stage classification

CharacteristicseGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)P
Stage 1 (≥90) (n = 48)Stage 2 (60 to 89) (n = 48)Stage 3 (30 to 59) (n = 47)Stage 4 (15 to 29) (n = 45)Stage 5 (<15) (n = 51)
Age (years)53 (30 to 73)55 (32 to 71)53 (31 to 73)56 (33 to 70)50 (30 to 71)0.89
Previous CVD (%)25353238350.74
Diabetes (%)19252127200.78
BMI (kg/m2)26.6 ± 2.326.4 ± 3.125.7 ± 2.626.0 ± 3.125.2 ± 2.70.06
Systolic BP (mmHg)133 (110 to 157)134 (119 to 160)135 (110 to 155)134 (113 to 170)135 (110 to 180)0.33
Diastolic BP (mmHg)82 (71 to 93)82 (75 to 92)86 (80 to 95)85 (71 to 93)83 (71 to 97)0.06
Smoking (%)46395152450.82
eGFR (ml/min)96 (91 to 108)78 (61 to 89)48 (31 to 58)24 (15 to 29)11 (5 to 14)<0.001
24-hour proteinuria (g/day)1.39 ± 0.531.33 ± 0.471.69 ± 0.781.74 ± 0.752.35 ± 1.32<0.001
Hemoglobin (g/dl)12.6 ± 2.712.7 ± 1.911.1 ± 2.311.2 ± 2.110.6 ± 1.8<0.001
Serum albumin (g/dl)4.0 (3.5 to 4.6)4.0 (3.5 to 4.6)4.1 (3.4 to 4.6)4.0 (3.5 to 4.6)3.8 (3.2 to 4.5)<0.001
CRP (mg/l)7.3 (3.2 to 11.6)10.0 (5.0 to 13.0)16.0 (5.0 to 32.0)21.0 (4.7 to 33.0)26.0 (4.0 to 39.0)<0.001
Serum calcium (mg/dl)8.7 (8.1 to 9.9)8.8 (8.0 to 9.8)8.5 (7.3 to 9.2)8.2 (7.2 to 9.0)8.1 (7.2 to 9.0)<0.001
Serum phosphate (mg/dl)4.21 ± 0.504.19 ± 0.774.71 ± 0.835.68 ± 1.257.13 ± 1.59<0.001
PTH (pg/ml)47 ± 1161 ± 23130 ± 24153 ± 21280 ± 69<0.001
Flow-mediated dilation (%)8.4 (7.2 to 9.7)7.2 (6.0 to 8.3)6.8 (5.3 to 8.2)6.2 (5.0 to 8.1)5.2 (4.0 to 7.2)<0.001
Nonflow-mediated dilation (%)12.9 ± 0.513.1 ± 0.312.9 ± 0.513.0 ± 0.411.8 ± 0.9<0.001
Total testosterone (nmol/L)14.6 (3.0 to 28.1)13.1 (4.1 to 27.7)11.9 (2.3 to 22.9)10.9 (1.9 to 19.2)8.4 (0.7 to 24.6)<0.001
Free testosterone (pg/ml)33.1 (9.1 to 70.0)39.1 (7.3 to 73.6)32.0 (1.5 to 66.7)25.3 (2.8 to 80.5)18.4 (1.2 to 71.3)<0.001
  • CKD, chronic kidney disease; K/DOQI, Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; CVD, cardiovascular disease; BMI, body mass index; CRP, C-reactive protein; PTH, parathyroid hormone.