Table 5.

Hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval for incident frailty by dipping and BP patterns from discrete Cox proportional hazard models over 4 years of follow-up from time of ambulatory BP monitoring

PatternHazard Ratio (95% CI)
UnadjustedaModel 1bModel 2cModel 3d
Frailty by dipping patterne
 Normal dippingReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 Reverse dipping1.76 (1.36 to 2.28)1.34 (1.03 to 1.76)1.31 (0.99 to 1.72)1.13 (0.85 to 1.50)
 Nondippers1.38 (1.11 to 1.71)1.17 (0.94 to 1.47)1.17 (0.93 to 1.47)1.08 (0.86 to 1.36)
 Extreme dipping0.94 (0.65 to 1.36)0.91 (0.62 to 1.33)0.92 (0.62 to 1.35)0.95 (0.64 to 1.40)
Frailty by BP pattern
 Controlled hypertensionReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 White-coat hypertension0.92 (0.58 to 1.47)0.69 (0.42 to 1.12)0.67 (0.41 to 1.09)0.62 (0.37 to 1.0)
 Masked hypertension1.28 (1.04 to 1.56)1.15 (0.92 to 1.45)1.17 (0.93 to 1.47)1.07 (0.85 to 1.36)
 Sustained hypertension1.54 (1.25 to 1.91)1.15 (0.90 to 1.48)1.14 (0.88 to 1.46)0.99 (0.76 to 1.30)
  • P value for proportional hazard assumption (dipping patterns)=0.99. P value for proportional hazard assumption (BP patterns)=0.95.

  • a Unadjusted: adjusting for clinic site.

  • b Model 1: adjusting for age, race, sex, education, marital status, and income.

  • c Model 2: adjusted for model 1 plus smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use.

  • d Model 3: adjusted for model 2 plus body mass index, use of antihypertensive medications, history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, anemia, C-reactive protein, urine protein-creatinine ratio, depression, stroke, and GFR at time of ambulatory BP.

  • e We are assessing incidence of frailty in participants who were not frail or prefrail at baseline (time of ambulatory BP monitoring).