Table 1.

Demographic and clinical characteristics of CKD cohort with ambulatory BP monitoring based on dipping patterns

CharacteristicAll Patients (n=1502)Reverse Dipping (n=252)Nondipping (n=572)Normal Dipping (n=536)Extreme Dipping (n=142)
Age63±1066±964±1062±1162±9
Male841 (56)147 (58)332 (58)281 (52)81 (57)
Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white681 (45)97 (39)237 (41)273 (51)74 (52)
 Non-Hispanic black582 (39)117 (46)249 (44)172 (32)44 (31)
 Hispanic182 (12)29 (12)69 (12)66 (12)18 (13)
 Other57 (4)9 (4)17 (3)25 (5)6 (4)
Income
 ≤$20,000394 (26)85 (34)167 (29)114 (21)28 (20)
 $20,001–50,000401 (27)70 (28)151 (26)141 (26)39 (28)
 $50,001–100,000335 (22)45 (18)121 (21)135 (25)34 (24)
 ≥$100,001164 (11)18 (7)57 (10)71 (13)18 (13)
Marital status
 Currently married880 (59)137 (54)327 (57)323 (60)93 (66)
 Never married193 (13)39 (16)66 (12)74 (14)14 (10)
 Formerly married429 (29)76 (30)179 (31)139 (26)14 (10)
Education
 <High school250 (17)57 (23)102 (18)69 (13)22 (16)
 High school graduate259 (17)53 (21)107 (19)82 (15)17 (12)
 Some college/college graduate992 (66)142 (56)362 (63)385 (72)103 (73)
Body mass index, kg/m232±732±732±731±731±8
Current smoker, yes131 (9)26 (10)49 (9)43 (8)13 (9)
Current or former use of alcohol, yes812 (54)111 (44)288 (51)329 (62)84 (59)
Illicit drug use, yes506 (34)80 (32)174 (30)202 (38)50 (35)
Office BP, mm Hg
 Systolic126±20129±22127±21124±20124±18
 Diastolic69±1269±1369±1270±1271±11
 Pulse pressure57±1961±1958±2055±1853±17
Past medical history
 Hypertension1397 (93)245 (97)540 (94)491 (92)121 (85)
 Diabetes629 (42)133 (53)258 (45)193 (36)45 (32)
 Coronary artery disease585 (39)141 (56)238 (42)171 (32)35 (25)
 Heart failure146 (10)42 (17)48 (8)47 (9)9 (6)
 Stroke174 (12)46 (18)70 (12)48 (9)10 (7)
 Peripheral vascular disease99 (7)26 (10)40 (7)27 (5)6 (4)
 Depression724 (48)121 (48)296 (52)245 (46)63 (44)
 Hyperlipidemia1027 (69)184 (73)390 (68)356 (67)67 (69)
Antihypertensive medications
 ACEI/ARB984 (66)160 (64)389 (68)350 (65)85 (60)
 Diuretic790 (53)161 (64)314 (55)248 (46)67 (48)
 Calcium channel blocker638 (43)133 (53)264 (46)192 (36)49 (35)
β-Blocker777 (52)168 (67)314 (55)232 (43)63 (45)
 Vasodilator197 (13)51 (20.3)86 (15)42 (8)18 (13)
Taking anti-HTN medications1374 (92)250 (98)532 (93)476 (89)120 (85)
Total number anti-HTN medications2.6±1.53.2±1.42.7±1.52.2±1.42.2±1.5
Anemiaa687 (46)146 (58)267 (47)215 (40)59 (42)
Serum creatinine1.9±1.12.2±1.52.0±1.21.8±0.91.8±0.9
eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m2
 ≥60355 (24)79 (32)156 (28)93 (18)27 (19)
 45 to <60448 (30)84 (34)163 (29)156 (30)43 (30)
 30 to <45394 (27)55 (22)147 (26)152 (29)40 (28)
 <30290 (20)31 (12)101 (18)126 (24)32 (23)
Urine protein-creatinine ratiob0.1 (0.06, 0.4)0.2 (0.08, 0.8)0.1 (0.06, 0.5)0.09 (0.05, 0.3)0.08 (0.05, 0.3)
C-reactive protein4.9±8.86.5±9.35.1±10.64.2±6.94.3±6.0
  • Categoric values presented as mean±SD and continuous variables as n (%), unless otherwise specified. ACEI, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; HTN, hypertensive.

  • a Anemia defined as hemoglobin <12 g/dl for women and <13.5 g/dl for men.

  • b Urine protein-creatinine ratio presented as median (25th, 75th).