Table 1.

Definitions of phenotypes using clinic BP and ambulatory BP monitoring

BP PhenotypeClinic MeasurementsAmbulatory BP Monitoring Measurements
Uncontrolled BP
 Uncontrolled clinic BPMean systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥90 mm HgNot applicable
 Uncontrolled daytime BPNot applicableMean daytime systolic BP ≥135 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥85 mm Hg
 Uncontrolled nighttime BPNot applicableMean nighttime systolic BP ≥120 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥70 mm Hg
 Sustained uncontrolled BPMean systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg andMean daytime systolic BP ≥135 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥85 mm Hg
Diurnal BP pattern
 Nondipping BPNot applicableNighttime to daytime decline in systolic BP ≤10%
Mismatch between uncontrolled clinic and out-of-clinic BP
 White-coat effectMean systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥90 mm HgMean daytime systolic BP <135 mm Hg and diastolic BP <85 mm Hg
 Masked uncontrolled hypertensionMean systolic BP <140 mm Hg and diastolic BP <90 mm HgMean daytime systolic BP ≥135 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥85 mm Hg
  • Sustained controlled BP—defined as mean clinic systolic BP <140 mm Hg, mean clinic diastolic BP <90 mm Hg, mean daytime systolic BP <135 mm Hg, and mean daytime diastolic BP <85 mm Hg—was used as a reference group for analyses of white-coat effect, masked uncontrolled hypertension, and sustained uncontrolled BP.