Table 2.

Clinical characteristics of the study sample by presence or absence of EKG-LVH

Clinical CharacteristicCornell LVH NegativeCornell LVH PositivePSokolow–Lyon LVH NegativeSokolow–Lyon LVH PositiveP
n343 (89%)44 (11%)355 (92%)32 (8%)
Age (years)63.4 ± 12.867.6 ± 11.40.0464.1 ± 12.661.1 ± 14.60.2
Men327 (95%)41 (93%)0.5339 (95%)29 (91%)0.2
Race0.4<0.0001
    white251 (73%)29 (66%)268 (75%)12 (38%)
    black86 (25%)15 (34%)81 (23%)20 (63%)
    other3 (1%)0 (0%)3 (1%)0 (0%)
Weight (kg)94.6 ± 22.989.0 ± 15.30.194.7 ± 22.585.6 ± 17.50.03
Height (in.)69.4 ± 3.168.8 ± 2.90.269.4 ± 3.068.4 ± 3.00.07
BMI (kg/m2)30.3 ± 6.528.8 ± 4.20.130.3 ± 6.428.3 ± 5.40.08
Diabetes mellitus121 (35%)20 (45%)0.2128 (36%)13 (41%)0.6
Current smoker95 (28%)10 (23%)0.796 (27%)9 (28%)0.9
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)53.2 ± 26.741.4 ± 24.0<0.0152.6 ± 26.942.6 ± 22.30.04
Spot urine protein/creatinine ratio (g/g)0.7 ± 1.71.2 ± 1.90.10.7 ± 1.42.2 ± 3.8<0.0001
CKD208 (61%)35 (80%)<0.01218 (61%)25 (78%)0.06
Albumin (g/dl)3.8 ± 0.43.8 ± 0.313.8 ± 0.43.8 ± 0.50.5
Hemoglobin (g/dl)13.6 ± 1.813.1 ± 2.10.113.6 ± 1.812.8 ± 2.20.02
Cholesterol (g/dl)186.8 ± 38.3179.5 ± 32.40.3185.7 ± 37.8189.1 ± 37.10.7
Seated clinic BP (mmHg)143.4 ± 21.4/81.9 ± 11.9154.3 ± 21.3/83.9 ± 13.4<0.01/0.3143.7 ± 21.0/81.8 ± 11.9155.3 ± 25.8/86.2 ± 13.5<0.01/0.05
Seated clinic heart rate (bpm)72.1 ± 12.969.9 ± 10.90.372.0 ± 12.869.7 ± 10.80.3
24-hour ambulatory BP (mmHg)131.4 ± 14.9/73.8 ± 9.8142.3 ± 20.6/77.2 ± 11.0<0.0001/0.05132.7 ± 16.0/74.2 ± 10.0144.3 ± 19.2/77.0 ± 14.4<0.001/0.2
24-hour ambulatory heart rate (bpm)71.7 ± 11.371.2 ± 11.20.871.7 ± 11.471.4 ± 9.70.9
Number of antihypertensives drugs2.3 ± 1.63.0 ± 1.3<0.012.3 ± 1.62.6 ± 1.60.3
Nature of antihypertensive agent
    thiazide diuretics89 (26%)12 (27%)0.992 (26%)9 (28%)0.8
    loop diuretics112 (33%)18 (41%)0.3118 (33%)12 (38%)0.6
    dihydropyridine CCBs94 (27%)11 (25%)0.794 (26%)11 (34%)0.3
    nondihydropyridine CCBs28 (8%)8 (18%)0.0334 (10%)2 (6%)0.5
    beta-blockers130 (38%)24 (55%)0.03138 (39%)16 (50%)0.2
    alpha-blockers88 (26%)12 (27%)0.894 (26%)6 (19%)0.3
    centrally acting agents24 (7%)7 (16%)0.0427 (8%)4 (13%)0.3
    vasodilators9 (3%)2 (5%)0.511 (3%)0 (0%)0.3
    ACE inhibitors156 (45%)27 (61%)0.05164 (46%)19 (59%)0.2
    ARBs47 (14%)9 (20%)0.251 (14%)5 (16%)0.9
Statin use163 (48%)29 (66%)0.02176 (50%)16 (50%)1
Aspirin use160 (47%)29 (66%)0.02176 (50%)13 (41%)0.3
Myocardial infarction78 (23%)13 (30%)0.384 (24%)7 (22%)0.8
Coronary artery bypass surgery42 (12%)9 (20%)0.147 (13%)4 (13%)0.9
Percutaneous coronary revascularization51 (15%)11 (25%)0.0858 (16%)4 (13%)0.6
Stroke43 (13%)11 (25%)0.0248 (14%)6 (19%)0.4
Peripheral vascular bypass18 (5%)1 (3%)0.6
Cornell voltage-duration product1333.7 ± 492.93286.7 ± 840.6<0.00011503.0 ± 762.82140.3 ± 1195.5<0.0001
Cornell voltage LVH32 (9%)12 (38%)<0.0001
Sokolow–Lyon voltage20.5 ± 9.028.4 ± 10.4<0.000119.6 ± 7.441.7 ± 5.7<0.0001
Sokolow–Lyon voltage LVH20 (6%)12 (27%)<0.0001
  • ± indicates SD. Parentheses have percent of patients. Continuous variables tested by ANOVA, discrete variables tested by χ2 test.