Table 1.

Demographic and clinical characteristics of southeastern patients on incident dialysis at baseline by patient distance to a transplant center, 2012–2015

CharacteristicsStudy Population,an=27,250<15 miles, 5870 (22%)15–30 miles, 5364 (20%)31–60 miles, 6959 (26%)61–90 miles, 6330 (23%)>90 miles, 2727 (10%)
Selected patient characteristics at the start of dialysis
 Age, yr, mean (SD)60 (13)58 (14)59 (13)60 (13)60 (13)60 (13)
 Age category, yr, N (%)
  18–29754 (3)179 (3)158 (3)198 (3)156 (3)63 (2)
  30–391637 (6)433 (7)313 (6)395 (6)340 (5)156 (6)
  40–493572 (13)860 (15)727 (14)838 (12)771 (12)376 (14)
  50–596116 (22)1342 (23)1174 (22)1551 (22)1430 (23)619 (23)
  60–698234 (30)1726 (29)1608 (30)2092 (30)1990 (31)818 (30)
  70–806937 (26)1330 (23)1384 (26)1885 (27)1643 (26)695 (26)
 Sex, N (%)
  Men15,096 (55)3282 (56)3005 (56)3876 (56)3457 (55)1476 (54)
  Women12,154 (45)2588 (44)2359 (44)3083 (44)2873 (45)1251 (46)
 Race/ethnicity, N (%)
  White, non-Hispanic10,507 (39)1507 (26)2334 (44)3206 (46)2483 (39)980 (36)
  White, Hispanic590 (2)153 (3)168 (3)155 (2)74 (1)40 (2)
  Black, non-Hispanic15,488 (57)4022 (69)2699 (51)3481 (50)3634 (58)1652 (61)
  Other race/ethnicity581 (2)168 (3)144 (3)85 (1)134 (2)50 (2)
 Attributed cause of ESKD, N (%)
  Diabetes12,098 (46)2396 (43)2330 (45)3148 (47)2932 (48)1292 (49)
  Hypertension9856 (38)2317 (41)1902 (37)2419 (36)2329 (38)889 (34)
  GN1747 (7)379 (7)413 (8)458 (7)331 (5)166 (6)
  Other2504 (10)546 (10)506 (10)696 (10)487 (8)269 (10)
 Comorbidities, N (%)
  BMI≥35 kg/m26747 (25)1389 (24)1346 (26)1793 (26)1540 (25)679 (25)
  Congestive heart failure7385 (28)1558 (27)1437 (27)1937 (28)1714 (28)739 (27)
  Atherosclerotic heart disease2576 (10)465 (8)491 (9)708 (10)603 (10)309 (12)
  Other cardiac disease4585 (17)749 (13)900 (17)1329 (19)1073 (17)534 (20)
  Cerebrovascular disease (stroke)2425 (9)481 (8)485 (9)654 (10)519 (8)286 (11)
  Peripheral vascular disease2310 (9)422 (7)398 (8)650 (10)544 (9)296 (11)
  Hypertension23,927 (89)5130 (89)4714 (90)6118 (89)5548 (89)2417 (90)
  Diabetes15,992 (60)3245 (56)3111 (59)4236 (62)3780 (61)1620 (60)
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease2304 (9)382 (7)462 (9)689 (10)532 (9)239 (9)
  Cancer1655 (6)296 (5)385 (7)456 (7)338 (5)180 (7)
  Tobacco use2442 (9)420 (7)438 (8)746 (11)546 (9)292 (11)
  Drug dependence445 (2)122 (2.)85 (2)117 (2)83 (1)38 (1)
  Alcohol dependence497 (2)101 (2)98 (2)132 (2)112 (2)54 (2)
 Functional status, N (%)
  Inability to ambulate1592 96)286 (5)302 (6)434 (6)390 (6)180 (7)
  Inability to transfer777 (3)122 (2)158 (3)223 (3)185 (3)89 (3)
  Needs assistance with daily activities2930 (11)512 (9)594 (11)796 (11)732 (12)296 (11)
  Institutionalized1648 (6)357 (6)328 (6)432 (6)371 (6)160 (6)
 Primary health insurance provider, N (%)
  Medicare8474 (32)1614 (28)1696 (32)2306 (34)1966 (32)892 (33)
  Medicaid6775 (25)1441 (25)1151 (22)1756 (26)1699 (27)728 (27)
  Employer group4824 (18)1160 (20)1044 (20)1135 (17)1101 (18)384 (14)
  Other coverage3889 (15)846 (15)823 (16)1022 (15)822 (13)376 (14)
  No coverage2841 (11)690 (12)545 (10)642 (9)645 (10)319 (12)
 Received pre-ESKD nephrology care, N (%)16,753 (71)3255 (67)3354 (72)4434 (72)4029 (73)1681 (70)
 Patient informed of transplant options, N (%)23,398 (86)5182 (88)4561 (85)5930 (85)5420 (86)2305 (85)
 Reasons that patient was not informed of transplant options, N (%)
  Patient has not been assessed2126 (8)359 (6)442 (8)588 (8)558 (9)179 (7)
  Medically unfit820 (3)130 (2)134 (3)214 (3)167 (3)175 (6)
  Unsuitable due to age323 (1)47 (1)86 (2)95 (1)58 (1)37 (1)
  Otherb310 (1)58 (1)60 (1)107 (2)64 (1)21 (1)
Selected neighborhood characteristics
 Neighborhood poverty (zip code residents below poverty), N (%)
  0%–19% below poverty (versus ≥20% below poverty)18,126 (67)3538 (61)4467 (84)5019 (73)3691 (59)1411 (52)
 Average % black, mean (SD)36 (24)49 (28)32 (20)28 (20)36 (22)39 (21)
 Average % high school graduates, mean (SD)83 (7)85 (8)85 (6)81 (6)82 (7)81 (8)
Selected dialysis facility characteristics
 For profit, N, %23,243 (87)4608 (81)4546 (87)6129 (90)5838 (95)2122 (79)
 Free-standing facility, N (%)26,521 (98)5674 (97)5241 (99)6807 (98)6183 (99)2616 (97)
 Facility size (no. of patients), N (%)
  <25753 (3)166 (3)88 (2)162 (2)216 (4)121 (5)
  26–545552 (21)1173(20)1019 (19)1703 (25)1192 (19)465 (17)
  55–786191 (23)1129 (19)1551 (29)1274 (18)1436 (23)801 (30)
  79+14,532 (54)3365 (58)2665 (50)3790 (55)3397 (54)1315 (49)
 Patient-to-social worker ratio by quartile, N (%)c
  <39:1 (quartile 1)1155 (5)244 (5)257 (5)361 (6)222 (4)71 (3)
  40:1–74:1 (quartile 2)5649 (23)1252 (24)1333 (26)1356 (21)1000 (18)708 (29)
  75:1–102:1 (quartile 3)7798 (31)1713 (33)1412 (27)1835 (29)1963 (35)875 (36)
  >102:1 (quartile 4)10,380 (42)2016 (39)2183 (42)2870 (45)2506 (44)805 (33)
Selected geographic measures and characteristics
 Distance in miles to center, mean (SD)46 (33)8 (4)23 (4)44 (9)75 (9)109 (20)
 Distance in miles to center, median38823437599
 Distance in miles to center, (IQR)(18–69)(5–11)(19–26)(36–52)(66–82)(95–114)
 Distance in miles to center, (range)(1–169)(1–15)(15–30)(30–60)(60–90)(90–169)
 Urban/rural classification, N (%)d
  Metropolitan18,643 (68)5841 (100)4442 (83)3171 (46)3511 (56)1678 (62)
  Micropolitan/rural8597 (32)29 (0.5)912 (17)3788 (54)2819 (44)1049 (38)
  • BMI, body mass index; IQR, interquartile range.

  • a A total of 84 (0.3%) patients were missing data on race/ethnicity, 1045 (4%) were missing attributed cause of disease, 647 (2%) were missing BMI, 455 (2%) were missing comorbidity information, 447 (2%) were missing primary health insurance provider, 3611 (13%) were missing pre-ESKD nephrology care, 451 (2%) were missing patient informed of transplant options (percentage varies by reason), 606 (2%) were missing for-profit status, 222 (0.8%) were missing facility type (free standing versus hospital based), 222 (1%) were missing total number of patients within facility, 2268 (8%) were missing facility social worker information (or facility has no social workers), and 10 (0.0004%) were missing urban/rural.

  • b Includes psychologically unfit, patient declines information, and other reasons.

  • c Number of patients for every one social worker. This number was calculated only among those facilities that have social workers.

  • d Variable presented descriptively as two categories due to cell counts n<11 to maintain patient confidentiality. Urban/rural classification variable was categorized into three groups (metropolitan, micropolitan, and rural) in both adjusted models presented in Table 3.