Table 2.

Demographic, clinical, and dialysis facility characteristics of patients with ESKD who started dialysis at a Georgia, North Carolina, or South Carolina dialysis facility during 2012–2015, whether they were referred to a transplant center in any of the three states within 1 year of beginning dialysis, and whether they initiated a transplant evaluation at a transplant center within 6 months of referral

Selected Patient CharacteristicsStudy Population,an=27,250Referred to Center within 1 yr of Dialysis Start among Total Population, n=9582/27,250 (35%)Evaluated within 6 mo of Referral among Those Referred, n=5536/9582 (58%)
Distance in miles to center, mean (SD)46 (33)44 (33)42 (33)
Distance in miles to center, median383632
Distance in miles to center, (IQR)(18–69)(19–67)(15–64)
Distance in miles to center, (range)(1–169)(1–162)(1–162)
Distance in miles to nearest transplant center, N (%)
 <155870 (22)2206 (23)1375 (25)
 15–305364 (20)2022 (21)1270 (23)
 31–606959 (26)2376 (25)1359 (25)
 61–906330 (23)2075 (22)1070 (19)
 >902727 (10)903 (9)462 (8)
Urban/rural classification, N (%)
 Metropolitan18,643 (68)6677 (70)3975 (72)
 Micropolitan4981 (18)1674 (18)894 (16)
 Rural3616 (13)1229 (13)667 (12)
Selected patient characteristics at the start of dialysis
 Age, yr, mean (SD)60 (13)54 (13)52 (13)
 Age category, yr, N (%)
  18–29754 (3)451 (5)327 (6)
  30–391637 (6)964 (10)624 (11)
  40–493572 (13)1917 (20)1223 (22)
  50–596116 (22)2517 (26)1473 (27)
  60–698234 (30)2713 (28)1481 (27)
  70–806937 (26)1020 (11)408 (7)
 Sex, N (%)
  Men15,096 (55)5674 (59)3368 (61)
  Women12,154 (45)3908 (41)2168 (39)
 Race/ethnicity, N (%)
  White, non-Hispanic10,507 (39)3059 (32)1743 (32)
  White, Hispanic590 (2)265 (3)183 (3)
  Black, non-Hispanic15,488 (57)6003 (63)3436 (62)
  Other race/ethnicity581 (2)234 (3)156 (3)
 Attributed cause of ESKD, N (%)
  Diabetes12,098 (46)4125 (44)2216 (41)
  Hypertension9856 (38)3635 (39)2132 (40)
  GN1747 (7)835 (9)561 (11)
  Other2504 (10)696 (8)444 (8)
 Comorbidities, N (%)
  BMI≥35 kg/m26747 (25)2418 (26)1316 (24)
  Congestive heart failure7385 (28)2082 (22)1050 (19)
  Atherosclerotic heart disease2576 (10)638 (7)310 (6)
  Other cardiac disease4585 (17)1206 (13)626 (12)
  Cerebrovascular disease (stroke)2425 (9)601 (6)285 (5)
  Peripheral vascular disease2310 (9)571 (6)249 (5)
  Hypertension23,927 (89)8572 (91)4933 (90)
  Diabetes15,992 (60)5373 (57)2953 (54)
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease2304 (9)481 (5)189 (4)
  Cancer1655 (6)308 (3)167 (3)
  Tobacco use2442 (9)838 (9)399 (7)
  Drug dependence445 (2)128 (1)48 (1)
  Alcohol dependence497 (2)131 (1)64 (1)
 Functional status, N (%)
  Inability to ambulate1592 96)186 (2)63 (1)
  Inability to transfer777 (3)64 (1)22 (0.4)
  Needs assistance with daily activities2930 (11)441 (5)180 (3)
  Institutionalized1648 (6)149 (2)52 (1)
 Primary health insurance provider, N (%)
  Medicare8474 (32)2364 (25)1228 (23)
  Medicaid6775 (25)2185 (23)1119 (21)
  Employer group4824 (18)2355 (25)1605 (29)
  Other coverage3889 (145)1149 (12)645 (12)
  No coverage2841 (11)1420 (15)867 (16)
 Received pre-ESKD nephrology care, N (%)16,753 (71)5926 (71)3391 (70)
 Patient informed of transplant options, N (%)23,398 (86)8593 (90)4989 (90)
 Reasons that patient was not informed of transplant options, N (%)
  Patient has not been assessed2126 (8)739 (8)408 (7)
  Medically unfit820 (3)75 (1)30 (1)
  Unsuitable due to age323 (1)19 (0.2)7 (0.1)
  Otherb310 (1)62 (1)34 (1)
Selected neighborhood characteristics
 Neighborhood poverty (zip code residents below poverty), N (%)
  0%–19% below poverty (versus ≥20% below poverty)18,126 (67)6418 (68)3761 (69)
 Average % black, mean (SD)36 (24)37 (24)38 (25)
 Average % high school graduates, mean (SD)83 (7)83 (7)84 (7)
Selected dialysis facility characteristics
 For profit, N (%)23,243 (87)8178 (87)4702 (86)
 Free-standing facility, N (%)26,521 (98)9423 (99)5440 (99)
 Facility size (no. of patients), N (%)
  <25753 (3)260 (3)175 (3)
  26–545552 (21)1996 (21)1194 (22)
  55–786191 (23)2314 (24)1305 (24)
  79+14,532 (54)4960 (52)2830 (51)
 Patient-to-social worker ratio by quartile, N (%)c
  <39:1 (quartile 1)1155 (5)403 (5)246 (5)
  40:1–74:1 (quartile 2)5649 (23)2054 (24)1265 (25)
  75:1–102:1 (quartile 3)7798 (31)2653 (30)1555 (30)
  >102:1 (quartile 4)10,380 (42)3628 (42)2048 (40)
  • a A total of 84 (0.3%) patients were missing data on race/ethnicity, 1045 (4%) were missing attributed cause of disease, 647 (2%) were missing BMI, 455 (2%) were missing comorbidity information, 447 (2%) were missing primary health insurance provider, 3611 (13%) were missing pre-ESKD nephrology care, 451 (2%) were missing patient informed of transplant options (percentage varies by reason), 606 (2%) were missing for-profit status, 222 (0.8%) were missing facility type (free standing versus hospital based), 222 (0.8%) were missing total number of patients within facility, 2268 (8%) were missing facility social worker information (or facility has no social workers), and 10 (0.0004%) were missing urban/rural.

  • b Includes psychologically unfit, patient declines information, and other reasons.

  • c Number of patients for every one social worker. This number was calculated only among those facilities that have social workers.