Table 3.

Change from baseline in indices of diet quality and clinical assessment at 3 and 6 mo, adjusted for baseline values

Variable3 mo6 mo
Intervention, n=38Control, n=37Mean Difference (95% Confidence Interval)Intervention, n=38Control, n=37Mean Difference (95% Confidence Interval)
Diet quality index (secondary outcomes)
 Alternative Healthy Eating Index (score between 1 and 110)4.3 (1.2 to 7.5)a2.1 (−1.7 to 5.8)3.2 (−1.3 to 7.7)3.4 (−0.3 to 7.2)3.8 (−0.1 to 7.8)0.5 (−4.6 to 5.5)
 Proportion of participants achieving a 5-point change in Alternative Healthy Eating Index, n (%)19 (50.0)14 (36.8)φ=−0.13b15 (39.5)17 (44.7)φ=−0.05b
Food groups (exploratory outcomes)
 Energy intake from the core food groups, %10.3 (6.2 to 14.4)c3.3 (−1.2 to 7.7)5.8 (0.9 to 10.7)a11.3 (7.7 to 14.8)c4.2 (−0.1 to 8.5)5.4 (1.0 to 9.8)a
 Fruit, servings/dd0.7 (0.3 to 1.0)e0.1 (−0.3 to 0.6)0.4 (−0.1 to 0.9)0.3 (0.0 to 0.7)0.2 (−0.3 to 0.7)0.0 (−0.6 to 0.5)
 Vegetables, servings/df1.3 (0.7 to 1.9)c−0.3 (−0.9 to 0.2)1.5 (0.6 to 2.3)e0.8 (0.2 to 1.4)a−0.1 (−0.8 to 0.7)0.3 (−0.6 to 1.3)
Clinical measure
 Clinic BP
  Systolic BP, mm Hg−2 (−8 to 5)2 (−3 to 8)−1 (−8 to 6)−1 (−8 to 7)2 (−5 to 8)2 (−7 to 10)
  Diastolic BP, mm Hg−3 (−6 to 1)0 (−3 to 4)−2 (−6 to 1)−1 (−5 to 3)0 (−3 to 3)1 (−3 to 4)
Serum blood chemistry
 Serum potassium, mEq/Lg−0.01 (−0.12 to 0.10)−0.01 (−0.15 to 0.13)−0.01 (−0.20 to 0.20)0.05 (−0.09 to 0.20)−0.04 (−0.18 to 0.10)0.08 (−0.10 to 0.30)
 Serum bicarbonate, mEq/Lg0.18 (−0.74 to 1.11)−0.03 (−0.94 to 0.88)0.07 (−1.10 to 1.25)0.32 (−0.51 to 1.16)1.79 (−2.34 to 5.92)−1.56 (−5.76 to 2.66)
 Serum phosphate, mEq/Lh−0.03 (−0.25 to 0.19)−0.09 (−0.04 to 0.19)0.00 (−0.34 to 0.31)0.12 (−0.12 to 0.37)−0.19 (−0.43 to 0.06)0.22 (−0.06 to 0.37)
Exploratory outcomes
 Quality of life (measure name)
  Overall change in quality of lifei0.10 (0.03 to 0.16)a0.03 (−0.03 to 0.09)0.07 (−0.01 to 0.15)0.07 (0.01 to 0.14)a0.05 (−0.01 to 0.12)0.02 (−0.06 to 0.10)
  • a P≤0.05.

  • b φ: φ coefficient used to determine a relationship between two binary variables. A φ<0.19 distinguishes a weak-to-negligible relationship.

  • c P≤0.0001.

  • d Sample size at 3 mo (n=37 for intervention; n=37 for control). Sample size at 6 mo (n=34 for intervention; n=35 for control).

  • e P≤0.001; P≤0.001.

  • f Sample size at 3 mo (n=38 for intervention; n=36 for control). Sample size at 6 mo (n=35 for intervention; n=36 for control).

  • g Sample size at 3 mo (n=38 for intervention; n=36 for control). Sample size at 6 mo (n=37 for intervention; n=38 for control).

  • h Sample size at 3 mo (n=32 for intervention; n=35 for control). Sample size at 6 mo (n=32 for intervention; n=37 for control).

  • i Sample size at 3 mo (n=36 for intervention; n=36 for control). Sample size at 6 mo (n=37 for intervention; n=36 for control).