Table 2.

Baseline characteristics of participants in the ENTICE-CKD study

CharacteristicIntervention, n=41Control, n=39
Age, yr63±1261±13
Sex, % male6364
Ethnicity, n (%)
 Asian2 (5)
 White35 (85)1 (3)
 European2 (5)29 (74)3 (8)
 Indigenous1 (2.5)0 (0)
 Other1 (2.5)6 (15)
Diabetes, n (%)16 (39)15 (39)
Cardiovascular disease, n (%)14 (34)12 (31)
Hypertension, n (%)34 (83)31 (80)
Antihypertensive medication, n (%)38 (93)34 (87)
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor1213
 Angiotensin receptor blocker2016
 Alpha-blocker91
 Beta-blocker2018
 Calcium channel blocker1515
 Diuretic1917
 Other78
Total antihypertensive medication pill count at baseline, n10288
Serum potassium, mEq/L4.6±0.64.7±0.5
Serum bicarbonate, mEq/L26±326±3
Serum phosphate, mg/dl3.7±0.63.7±0.6
Serum creatinine, mg/dl2.0±0.61.9±0.7
eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 (2)36±1239±12
Systolic BP, mm Hg136±18131±19
Diastolic BP, mm Hg80±1278±11
Weight, kg96±2290±19
BMI, kg/m233±731±6
Waist circumference113±18107±18
Urine albuminuria, mg/L120.0 (8.0–442.0)38.5 (13.0–143.5)
Alternative Healthy Eating Index, score between 1 and 11071.4 (11.8)69.6 (12.1)
Energy intake from the core food groups, %62.8±17.465.7±13.9
Fruit, servings/d1.5±0.91.9±1.5
Vegetables, servings/d4.2±2.05.4±2.5a
Sodium, mg2379.0±1392.02260.0±907.0
Fiber, g24.1±9.126.7±9.6
Daily food costs, AU$b12.8±4.413.3±3.7
Energy, kJ9472.0±4837.09571.9±2909.0
Energy, kJ/kg100.5±55.3111.4±41.8
Protein, g104.8±51.3111.3±31.5
Protein, g/kg1.1±0.51.3±0.5
  • Data are reported as mean±SD or median (interquartile range). ENTICE-CKD, Evaluation of Individualized Telehealth Intensive Coaching to Promote Healthy Eating and Lifestyle in CKD study; BMI, body mass index.

  • a P value for between group difference at baseline <0.05.

  • b Daily food costs were calculated from each participants daily food intake using the Australian Eating Survey.