Table 4.

Associations between plasma carbamylated HDL and primary and secondary kidney outcomes

ParameterDoubling of Serum CreatinineRapid Kidney Progression
Model 1Model 2Model 1Model 2
HR (95% CI)P ValueHR (95% CI)P ValueHR (95% CI)P ValueHR (95% CI)P Value
Carbamylated HDL, µg/ml1.55 (1.39 to 1.73)<0.0011.55 (1.38 to 1.73)<0.0011.43 (1.20 to 1.70)<0.0011.43 (1.20 to 1.70)<0.001
Age, yr1.34 (1.12 to 1.59)0.0011.34 (1.12 to 1.60)0.0011.22 (0.96 to 1.55)0.101.23 (0.97 to 1.57)0.09
Sex, men/women0.68 (0.52 to 0.89)0.0050.69 (0.53 to 0.91)0.0091.09 (0.74 to 1.59)0.671.16 (0.78 to 1.71)0.46
BMI, kg/m21.27 (1.12 to 1.44)<0.0011.26 (1.10 to 1.43)0.0010.99 (0.82 to 1.19)0.900.94 (0.78 to 1.14)0.50
Duration of diabetes, yr0.97 (0.86 to 1.10)0.620.97 (0.86 to 1.10)0.680.95 (0.79 to 1.15)0.600.96 (0.79 to 1.16)0.96
Smoker, no/yes1.38 (0.89 to 2.14)0.151.38 (0.89 to 2.15)0.151.55 (0.86 to 2.86)0.151.47 (0.81 to 2.66)0.21
Systolic BP, mm Hg1.18 (1.04 to 1.34)0.011.18 (1.04 to 1.34)0.011.52 (1.24 to 1.85)<0.0011.50 (1.22 to 1.83)<0.001
HbA1c, %1.29 (1.14 to 1.47)<0.0011.29 (1.14 to 1.47)<0.0011.41 (1.19 to 1.67)<0.0011.43 (1.21 to 1.70)<0.001
Baseline eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m20.52 (0.43 to 0.63)<0.0010.53 (0.44 to 0.63)<0.0010.84 (0.71 to 0.98)0.030.85 (0.72 to 0.99)0.04
NormoalbuminuriaReference<0.001Reference<0.001Reference<0.001Reference<0.001
Microalbuminuria2.64 (1.85 to 3.78)<0.0012.65 (1.84 to 3.80)<0.0013.20 (2.01 to 5.09)<0.0013.27 (2.04 to 5.24)<0.001
Macroalbuminuria8.13 (5.47 to 12.07)<0.0018.29 (5.55 to 12.35)<0.00115.12 (8.79 to 26.0)<0.00116.05 (9.25 to 27.85)<0.001
ACEI/ARB, no/yes1.11 (0.86 to 1.45)0.421.12 (0.85 to 1.46)0.431.11 (0.77 to 1.61)0.581.11 (0.76 to 1.61)0.61
Lipid-lowering therapy, no/yes1.28 (0.96 to 1.52)0.111.23 (0.97 to 1.56)0.081.13 (0.81 to 1.58)0.471.13 (0.80 to 1.61)0.49
LDL cholesterol, mg/dl1.04 (0.92 to 1.19)0.541.03 (0.85 to 1.24)0.80
HDL cholesterol, mg/dl0.95 (0.83 to 1.09)0.490.82 (0.63 to 1.01)0.05
  • The given hazard ratio is for 1-SD change in plasma carbamylated HDL and continuous covariates at baseline. Model 1: adjusted for carbamylated HDL, age, sex, BMI, duration of diabetes, smoking, systolic BP, HbA1c, baseline eGFR, albuminuria status, ACEI/ARB therapy, and lipid-lowering therapy. Model 2: further adjusted for LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. HR, hazard ratio; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; ACEI/ARB, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker; —, not applicable.