Table 1.

Clinical characteristics of the study sample by presence or absence of CKD

Clinical CharacteristicNo CKDCKDOverallP
n144 (37%)243 (63%)387 (100%)
Age (years)58.4 ± 12.967.1 ± 11.563.9 ± 12.8<0.0001
Men131 (91%)237 (98%)368 (95%)<0.0001
Race<0.0001
    white128 (89%)152 (63%)280 (72%)
    black15 (10%)86 (35%)101 (26%)
    other1 (1%)5 (2%)6 (2%)
Weight (kg)94.5 ± 23.193.6 ± 21.793.9 ± 22.20.7
Height (in.)69.7 ± 3.169.1 ± 3.069.4 ± 3.00.07
BMI (kg/m2)30.1 ± 6.630.2 ± 6.130.1 ± 6.30.8
Diabetes mellitus33 (23%)108 (44%)141 (36%)<0.0001
Current smoker58 (40%)144 (59%)202 (52%)<0.0001
eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)81.1 ± 14.634.5 ± 14.051.8 ± 26.7<0.0001
Spot urine protein/creatinine ratio (g/g)0.2 ± 0.41.1 ± 2.00.8 ± 1.7<0.0001
Albumin (g/dl)3.8 ± 0.43.8 ± 0.43.8 ± 0.40.9
Hemoglobin (g/dl)14.4 ± 1.513.0 ± 1.813.5 ± 1.8<0.0001
Cholesterol (g/dl)194.9 ± 39.8181.1 ± 35.7186.0 ± 37.7<0.01
Seated clinic systolic BP (mmHg)137.9 ± 18.4148.7 ± 22.4144.6 ± 21.6<0.0001
Seated clinic diastolic BP (mmHg)82.5 ± 10.882.0 ± 12.782.2 ± 12.10.7
Seated clinic heart rate (bpm)74.7 ± 12.470.2 ± 12.671.9 ± 12.7<0.001
24-hour ambulatory systolic BP (mmHg)127.9 ± 13.0135.7 ± 17.0132.7 ± 16.0<0.0001
24-hour ambulatory diastolic BP (mmHg)74.5 ± 8.673.9 ± 10.874.2 ± 10.00.6
24-hour ambulatory heart rate (bpm)74.4 ± 11.270.0 ± 11.071.7 ± 11.3<0.001
Number of antihypertensives drugs1.5 ± 1.42.8 ± 1.52.3 ± 1.6<0.0001
Nature of antihypertensive agent
    thiazide diuretics36 (25%)65 (27%)101 (26%)0.7
    loop diuretics18 (13%)112 (46%)130 (34%)<0.0001
    dihydropyridine CCBs20 (14%)85 (35%)105 (27%)<0.0001
    nondihydropyridine CCBs13 (9%)23 (9%)36 (9%)0.9
    beta-blockers41 (28%)113 (47%)154 (40%)<0.0001
    alpha-blockers22 (15%)78 (32%)100 (26%)<0.0001
    centrally acting agents4 (3%)27 (11%)31 (8%)<0.0001
    vasodilators1 (1%)10 (4%)11 (3%)0.05
    ACE inhibitors59 (41%)124 (51%)183 (47%)0.06
    ARBs9 (6%)47 (19%)56 (14%)<0.0001
Statin use47 (33%)145 (60%)192 (50%)<0.0001
Aspirin use56 (39%)133 (55%)189 (49%)<0.0001
Myocardial infarction28 (19%)63 (26%)91 (24%)0.2
Coronary artery bypass surgery11 (8%)40 (16%)51 (13%)<0.01
Percutaneous coronary revascularization15 (10%)47 (19%)62 (16%)0.02
Stroke19 (13%)35 (14%)54 (14%)0.7
Peripheral vascular bypass1 (1%)18 (7%)19 (5%)<0.0001
Cornell voltage-duration product1405.1 ± 727.91645.0 ± 865.41555.7 ± 824.2<0.01
Cornell voltage LVH9 (6%)35 (14%)44 (11%)<0.01
Sokolow–Lyon voltage21.3 ± 7.921.4 ± 10.321.4 ± 9.50.9
Sokolow–Lyon voltage LVH7 (5%)25 (10%)32 (8%)0.06
  • ± indicates SD. Parentheses have percent of patients. Continuous variables tested by ANOVA and discrete variables tested by χ2 test. CCB, calcium-channel blockers; ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; ARBs, angiotensin receptor blockers.