Table 1.

Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of study participants

CharacteristicTotal (n=74)Sodium Bicarbonate (n=35)Placebo (n=39)
Demographics
 Age, yr72 (8)70 (8)73 (8)
 Male, n (%)72 (97)34 (97)38 (97)
 Non-Hispanic white, n (%)68 (92)32 (91)36 (92)
Comorbidities
 eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m251 (18)50 (20)52 (16)
 Systolic BP, mm Hg128 (12)129 (12)127 (11)
 Use of ACE-i/ARB, n (%)62 (84)28 (80)34 (87)
 Weight, kg101 (20)100 (18)101 (22)
 Lean body wt, kg68 (9)67 (8)68 (9)
 Body mass index, kg/m233 (6)33 (6)33 (6)
 Coronary artery disease, n (%)15 (20)6 (17)9 (23)
 Congestive heart failure, n (%)5 (7)1 (3)4 (10)
Laboratory data
 Serum total CO2, meq/L24 (2)24 (3)24 (2)
 Serum K+, meq/L4.2 (0.4)4.2 (0.4)4.3 (0.4)
 Hemoglobin A1C, %7.5 (1.1)7.5 (1.0)7.6 (1.3)
 Urinary albumin-to-Cr, mg/ga121 (58–370)121 (84–412)131 (46–324)
 Urinary pH5.5 (0.4)5.6 (0.4)5.4 (0.4)
 Urinary NH4+, meq/d34 (20)36 (18)33 (21)
 Urinary titratable acid, meq/d32 (15)32 (14)31 (16)
 Urinary TGF-β1-to-Cr, ng/ga112 (74–157)122 (79–186)103 (68–147)
 Urinary KIM-1-to-Cr, ng/mga0.89 (0.58–1.87)0.91 (0.57–1.87)0.88 (0.59–1.89)
 Urinary fibronectin-to-Cr, ng/mg102 (74–173)107 (75–194)97 (65–147)
 Urinary NGAL-to-Cr, ng/mga11.1 (6.5–23.8)10.5 (7.0–23.6)11.9 (6.3–24.0)
  • Continuous variables shown as mean (SD). ACE-i, angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; Cr, creatinine; KIM-1, kidney injury molecule-1; NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin.

  • a Shown as median (interquartile range).