Table 3.

Effects of the sodium bicarbonate intervention on the primary (urinary TGF-β1) and secondary outcomes (urinary fibronectin, KIM-1, NGAL, and albumin)

OutcomePrimary OutcomeSecondary Outcomes
TGF-β1/CrFibronectin/CrKIM-1/CrNGAL/CrAlbumin/Cr
Sodium BicarbonatePlaceboSodium BicarbonatePlaceboSodium BicarbonatePlaceboSodium BicarbonatePlaceboSodium BicarbonatePlacebo
Within-group Δ from baseline
 At mo 32% (−18% to 27%)−11% (−28% to 10%)6% (−19% to 37%)3% (−20% to 32%)−7% (−36% to 36%)−13% (−40% to 25%)−35% (−59% to 2%)2% (−34% to 58%)22% (−2 to 52)9% (−12% to 36%)
 At mo 613% (−6% to 36%)3% (−15% to 24%)12% (−9% to 38%)−1% (−20% to 23%)−16% (−38% to 14%)12% (−18% to 52%)−21% (−46% to 16%)10% (−26% to 64%)9% (−19% to 46%)19% (−12% to 60%)
 Over mo 3 and 68% (−10% to 28%)−4% (−19% to 13%)9% (−9% to 31%)1% (−16% to 21%)−11% (−33% to 17%)−2% (−25% to 29%)−29% (−49% to 0%)6% (−24% to 48%)21% (−3% to 51%)12% (−11% to 40%)
Sodium Bicarbonate versus PlaceboSodium Bicarbonate versus PlaceboSodium Bicarbonate versus PlaceboSodium Bicarbonate versus PlaceboSodium Bicarbonate versus Placebo
Difference in change from baseline
 At mo 315% (−13% to 53%)3% (−27% to 45%)7% (−36% to 81%)−36% (−65% to 16%)12% (−18% to 52%)
 At mo 610% (−14% to 41%)13% (−16% to 51%)−25% (−50% to 13%)−28% (−58% to 22%)−9% (−40% to 38%)
 Over mo 3 and 613% (−10% to 40%)8% (−15% to 37%)−10% (−38% to 31%)−33% (−56% to 4%)1% (−25% to 36%)
  • Data are shown as geometric mean percentage change (95% confidence intervals). Positive values for difference in change indicate that the change was greater in the sodium bicarbonate group. Cr, creatinine; KIM-1, kidney injury molecule-1; NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin.