Table 1.

Preadmission characteristics of adult Kaiser Permanente Northern California members between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2013, who experienced an episode of AKI during the hospital stay and who had no prior heart failure or exposure to ACE-Is/ARBs within 5 yr prior, overall and stratified by exposure of ACE-I/ARB therapy during follow-up

CharacteristicOverall (n=10,242)No Use of ACE-I/ARB (n=8389)Incident Use of ACE-I/ARB (n=1853)D Value
Preadmission age, yr
 Mean (SD)62 (19)61 (20)65 (16)0.20
Preadmission age group, yr, n (%)0.15
 20–492757 (27)2423 (29)334 (18)
 50–591639 (16)1322 (16)317 (17)
 60–691902 (19)1461 (17)441 (24)
 70–791855 (18)1447 (17)408 (22)
 ≥802089 (20)1736 (21)353 (19)
Sex, n (%)0.02
 Women5489 (54)4479 (53)1010 (55)
 Men4753 (46)3910 (47)843 (46)
Race, n (%)0.02
 White7242 (71)5973 (71)1269 (69)
 Black1027 (10)817 (10)210 (11)
 Asian/Pacific Islander1347 (13)1077 (13)270 (15)
 Native American63 (0.6)53 (0.6)10 (0.5)
 Unknown563 (6)469 (6)94 (5)
Hispanic ethnicity, n (%)1460 (14)1215 (15)245 (13)0.04
Preadmission medical history, n (%)
 Acute coronary syndrome234 (2)135 (1.6)99 (5)0.75
 Ischemic stroke137 (1)109 (1)28 (2)0.09
 Transient ischemic attack123 (1)97 (1)26 (1)0.12
 Peripheral artery disease335 (3)257 (3)78 (4)0.20
 Mitral and/or aortic valvular disease325 (3)255 (3)70 (4)0.14
 Atrial fibrillation and/or flutter674 (7)515 (6)159 (9)0.22
 Coronary artery bypass graft surgery51 (0.5)35 (0.4)16 (0.9)0.44
 Percutaneous coronary intervention121 (1)80 (1)41 (2)0.52
 Diabetes mellitus1237 (12)850 (10)387 (21)0.52
 Hypertension3859 (38)2870 (34)989 (53)0.48
 Dyslipidemia4302 (42)3297 (39)1005 (54)0.37
 Chronic liver disease562 (6)496 (6)66 (4)0.32
 Chronic lung disease2184 (21)1783 (21)401 (22)0.01
 Hypothyroidism1370 (13)1109 (13)261 (14)0.04
 Systemic cancer2706 (26)2287 (27)419 (23)0.15
 Extracranial hemorrhage220 (2)192 (2)28 (2)0.26
Preadmission body mass index, kg/m2, n (%)0.15
 <18.5235 (2)210 (3)25 (1)
 18.5–24.92739 (27)2340 (28)399 (22)
 25.0–29.92939 (29)2413 (29)526 (28)
 30.0–39.92687 (26)2117 (25)570 (31)
 ≥40391 (4)295 (4)96 (5)
 Unknown1251 (12)1014 (12)237 (13)
Preadmission systolic BP category, mm Hg, n (%)0.22
 ≤1203534 (35)3056 (36)478 (26)
 121–1291875 (18)1553 (19)322 (17)
 130–1392188 (21)1762 (21)426 (23)
 140–1591539 (15)1155 (14)384 (20.7)
 160–179304 (3)225 (3)79 (4)
 ≥18088 (0.9)64 (0.8)24 (1)
 Unknown714 (7)574 (7)140 (8)
Preadmission medication use, n (%)
α-Blockers827 (8)649 (8)178 (10)0.14
 Any diuretic2249 (22)1661 (20)588 (32)0.38
 Any β-blocker2196 (21)1639 (20)557 (30)0.35
 Calcium channel blocker1072 (11)809 (10)263 (14)0.27
 Any aldosterone receptor antagonist195 (2)175 (2)20 (1)0.41
 Nitrate164 (2)129 (2)35 (2)0.13
 Hydralazine78 (0.8)68 (0.8)10 (0.5)0.25
 Antiarrhythmic60 (0.6)46 (0.5)14 (0.8)0.20
 Digoxin131 (1)109 (1)22 (1)0.06
 Statin2204 (22)1641 (20)563 (30)0.35
 Other lipid-lowering agent221 (2)159 (2)62 (3)0.35
 Anti-inflammatory drug1552 (15)1217 (15)335 (18)0.16
 Antiplatelet agent183 (2)144 (2)39 (2)0.13
 Diabetic therapy511 (5)351 (4)160 (9)0.47
Preadmission ambulatory, non–emergency department laboratory values, n (%)
 CKD-EPI eGFR, ml/min per 1.73 m20.07
  >1101179 (12)1061 (13)118 (6)
  90–1101721 (17)1424 (17)297 (16)
  60–893075 (30)2429 (29)646 (35)
  45–591069 (10)851 (10)218 (12)
  30–44677 (7)544 (7)133 (7)
  15–29330 (3)286 (3)44 (2)
  Unknown2191 (21)1794 (21)397 (21)
 Hemoglobin category, g/dl0.01
  >13.04058 (40)3224 (38)834 (45)
  12.0–12.91605 (16)1345 (16)260 (14)
  11.0–11.91208 (12)1052 (13)156 (8)
  10.0–10.9670 (7)602 (7)68 (4)
  9.0–9.9332 (3)298 (4)34 (2)
  <9.0284 (3)250 (3)34 (2)
  Unknown2085 (20)1618 (19)467 (25)
 Urinary dipstick protein excretion0.09
  Trace1481 (15)1255 (15)226 (12)
  1+2057 (20)1705 (20)352 (19)
  2+1131 (11)920 (11)211 (11)
  3+433 (4)353 (4)80 (4)
  Negative or unknown5140 (50)4156 (50)984 (53)
Index hospitalization
 AKI stage, n (%)0.07
  Stage 17476 (73)6079 (73)1397 (75)
  Stage 21370 (13)1130 (14)240 (13)
  Stage 31396 (14)1180 (14)216 (12)
 ICU stay, n (%)3173 (31)2482 (30)691 (37)
 ICU length of stay, h
  Median (interquartile range)0 (0–1)0 (0–1)0 (0–2)
  Range0–2210–2210–77
 Hospital length of stay, d0.02
  ≤3 d2502 (24)2015 (24)487 (26)
  4.0–7.0 d3797 (37)3156 (38)641 (35)
  >7 d3943 (39)3218 (38)725 (39)
 Predicted mortality score category, n (%)0.18
  <0.1%891 (9)743 (9)148 (8)
  0.1%–0.4%1432 (14)1141 (14)291 (16)
  0.5%–2.0%2626 (26)2082 (25)544 (29)
  2.0%–5.0%1826 (18)1464 (18)362 (20)
  5.0%–10.0%1238 (12)1036 (12)202 (11)
  10.0%–15.0%566 (6)458 (6)108 (6)
  15.0%–30.0%499 (5)415 (5)84 (5)
  ≥30%198 (2)160 (2)38 (2)
  Unknown966 (9)890 (11)76 (4)
  • ACE-I, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; CKD-EPI, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration; ICU, intensive care unit.