Table 1.

Characteristics of Geisinger Health System patients at the time of prescription for an opioid or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, before and after propensity matching

CovariablesBefore Propensity MatchingAfter Propensity Matching
People Prescribed Opioids (n=32,895)People Prescribed NSAIDs (n=37,525)Standardized Mean DifferencePeople Prescribed Opioids (n=23,123)People Prescribed NSAIDs (n=23,123)Standardized Mean Difference
Age, mean (SD)57 (17)52 (16)3554 (17)54 (16)−1
Female (N [%])17,665 (54%)21,375 (57%)−712,920 (56%)12,932 (56%)0
Black race (N [%])843 (3%)1317 (4%)−6674 (3%)708 (3%)−1
Baseline eGFR (mean in ml/min per 1.73 m2 [SD])84 (25)92 (21)−3389 (23)89 (21)1
Body mass index (mean in kg/m2 [SD])30.8 (7.7)31.2 (7.4)−631.0 (7.6)31.0 (7.1)0
Systolic BP (mean in mm Hg [SD])128 (18)125 (16)15127 (17)127 (16)1
Diastolic BP (mean in mm Hg [SD])74 (11)75 (10)−975 (10)75 (10)−5
HDL (mean in mg/dl [SD])50 (16)51 (16)−751 (12)51 (13)−3
Total cholesterol (mean in mg/dl [SD])183 (42)190 (40)−18187 (31)186 (32)0
Random glucose (mean in mg/dl [SD])108 (35)102 (28)18105 (31)105 (31)−1
Alcohol consumption (N [%])13,147 (45%)17,145 (51%)−1211,193 (48%)11,242 (49%)0
Current cigarette use (N [%])6721 (20%)7841 (21%)−15097 (22%)5076 (22%)0
Former cigarette use (N [%])10,340 (31%)9955 (27%)116845 (30%)6811 (29%)0
Antihypertensive prescription (N [%])18,509 (56%)16,208 (43%)2611,299 (49%)11,399 (49%)−1
Antidyslipidemic prescription (N [%])13,227 (40%)11,982 (32%)178035 (35%)8212 (36%)−2
Antidiabetic prescription (N [%])6730 (20%)5121 (14%)183741 (16%)3817 (17%)−1
Coronary artery disease (N [%])5560 (17%)2251 (6%)351921 (8%)2027 (9%)−2
Congestive heart failure (N [%])1643 (5%)377 (1%)24295 (1%)349 (2%)−2
Cardiovascular disease (N [%])2544 (8%)1098 (3%)222907 (13%)3092 (13%)−2
Peripheral artery disease (N [%])1154 (4%)428 (1%)16361 (2%)388 (2%)−1
Major depressive disorder (N [%])5153 (16%)5816 (15%)03775 (16%)3768 (16%)0
Diabetes (N [%])3676 (11%)2441 (7%)171899 (8%)1945 (8%)−1
Hypertension (N [%])9205 (28%)7484 (20%)195543 (24%)5570 (24%)0
Osteoporosis (N [%])2319 (7%)1925 (5%)81419 (6%)1438 (6%)0
Myalgias (N [%])1792 (5%)2317 (6%)−31358 (6%)1369 (6%)0
Amputations (N [%])90 (0%)7 (0%)735 (0%)5 (0%)4
  • Percentages reflect column-wide percentages. NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.