Table 3.

Adjusted hazard ratios for PD patient outcomes

Estimated Hazard Ratio (95% Confidence Interval)
ParameterDiscontinuation of PDMortalityCombined Outcome: Discontinuation of PD or Mortality
Female0.89 (0.86 to 0.93)0.98 (0.93 to 1.04)0.92 (0.90 to 0.95)
Age, yr (ref. 65–74 yr)
 18–391.03 (0.97 to 1.10)0.24 (0.21 to 0.28)0.78 (0.74 to 0.83)
 40–640.92 (0.88 to 0.97)0.55 (0.52 to 0.59)0.79 (0.76 to 0.82)
 75+1.05 (0.99 to 1.12)1.61 (1.51 to 1.72)1.29 (1.24 to 1.35)
Race (ref. white)
 Black1.05 (1.00 to 1.09)0.64 (0.59 to 0.69)0.92 (0.89 to 0.95)
 Asian0.61 (0.56 to 0.67)0.46 (0.39 to 0.52)0.56 (0.52 to 0.60)
 American Indian/Alaskan Native0.87 (0.75 to 1.02)0.76 (0.59 to 0.97)0.84 (0.73 to 0.95)
 Pacific Islander0.77 (0.63 to 0.93)0.56 (0.40 to 0.77)0.70 (0.59–0.82)
 Other/multiracial1.01 (0.73 to 1.35)0.60 (0.32 to 1.01)0.87 (0.65 to 1.12)
Hispanic0.77 (0.73 to 0.82)0.51 (0.46 to 0.56)0.69 (0.65 to 0.72)
Rural-urban commuting area (ref. urban)
 Large rural1.05 (0.98 to 1.12)1.11 (1.01 to 1.22)1.07 (1.01 to 1.12)
 Small rural1.02 (0.94 to 1.11)0.99 (0.87 to 1.11)1.01 (0.94 to 1.08)
 Isolated rural1.07 (0.97 to 1.18)1.20 (1.06 to 1.35)1.11 (1.03 to 1.20)
 Unknown0.91 (0.65 to 1.25)1.21 (0.80 to 1.75)1.05 (0.81 to 1.34)
BMI (ref. normal)
 Underweight1.09 (0.96 to 1.23)1.38 (1.19 to 1.60)1.19 (1.08 to 1.31)
 Overweight1.02 (0.97 to 1.07)0.83 (0.77 to 0.88)0.95 (0.92 to 0.99)
 Obese1.22 (1.16 to 1.27)0.85 (0.80 to 0.91)1.09 (1.05 to 1.13)
 Missing/OOR1.29 (1.06 to 1.55)1.05 (0.75 to 1.41)1.20 (1.01 to 1.41)
Pre-ESKD nephrology care (ref. no)
 Yes0.94 (0.89 to 0.99)0.84 (0.77 to 0.91)0.91 (0.87 to 0.95)
 Unknown0.96 (0.88 to 1.04)1.13 (0.99 to 1.28)1.01 (0.94 to 1.09)
Albumin (ref. 3.1–3.4 g/dl)
 1 to <3.11.18 (1.11 to 1.25)1.18 (1.09 to 1.29)1.18 (1.12 to 1.24)
 >3.4–5.50.90 (0.86 to 0.95)0.78 (0.72 to 0.84)0.86 (0.83 to 0.90)
 Missing/OOR1.02 (0.96 to 1.08)0.91 (0.84 to 0.99)0.98 (0.94 to 1.03)
GFR (MDRD) (ref. 5–10 ml/min per 1.73 m2)
 2 to <51.00 (0.93 to 1.07)0.87 (0.76 to 1.00)0.97 (0.91 to 1.03)
 >10–200.99 (0.95 to 1.02)0.98 (0.92 to 1.03)0.98 (0.95 to 1.01)
 Missing/OOR0.98 (0.89 to 1.07)1.47 (1.32 to 1.62)1.17 (1.09 to 1.25)
Diabetes1.28 (1.23 to 1.34)1.74 (1.61 to 1.87)1.39 (1.34 to 1.44)
Hypertension1.05 (1.00 to 1.10)1.21 (1.12 to 1.30)1.09 (1.05 to 1.13)
Diabetes, not cause1.18 (1.11 to 1.25)1.43 (1.31 to 1.55)1.25 (1.19 to 1.31)
Atherosclerotic disease0.98 (0.93 to 1.04)1.17 (1.10 to 1.25)1.06 (1.02 to 1.10)
Cardiac failure1.10 (1.05 to 1.15)1.57 (1.48 to 1.67)1.26 (1.21 to 1.30)
Cerebrovascular disease1.10 (1.02 to 1.18)1.16 (1.06 to 1.27)1.12 (1.06 to 1.19)
Peripheral vascular disease1.03 (0.97 to 1.09)1.09 (1.01 to 1.17)1.06 (1.01 to 1.11)
Other cardiac condition0.98 (0.93 to 1.03)1.28 (1.20 to 1.36)1.09 (1.05 to 1.14)
Tobacco use1.14 (1.07 to 1.22)1.17 (1.05 to 1.29)1.14 (1.08 to 1.21)
Needs help with ADLs1.19 (1.09 to 1.31)1.79 (1.63 to 1.96)1.43 (1.34 to 1.53)
Current employment0.90 (0.86 to 0.93)0.81 (0.75 to 0.88)0.88 (0.85 to 0.92)
Medicaid1.19 (1.14 to 1.25)1.09 (1.01 to 1.18)1.15 (1.11 to 1.20)
  • Models were also adjusted for indicators of the 6-month time period in which patients reached day 90 of ESKD (as shown in Figure 1). For parameters with multiple groups (e.g., age), the group title row shows the P value of significance for the overall effect. PD, peritoneal dialysis; ref., reference; BMI, body mass index; OOR, out of range; MDRD, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease; ADL, activities of daily living.