Table 1.

Characteristics of the included studies

StudyDietary PatternCountryNo. of ParticipantsFollow-up (yr)Age (yr)SexComorbidityEthnicityBaseline eGFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)
Asghari, et al. (31)Mediterranean dietIran1212630–70 (43.5)51% male6% diabetes 22% hypertensionNA73.5
Asghari, et al. (22)DASHIran16306>27 (42)51.5% maleNANA74.3
Asghari, et al.Lacto-vegetarianIran16306.1>27 (43.4)50.8% male6.1% diabetes 14.5% hypertensionNA73.7
Dunkler, et al. (30)MAHEI40 Countries69165.561–71 (66)68% male100% diabetesNA71.5 (67% no CKD and 33% CKD)
Foster, et al. (28)DGASUnited States18026.659 (±9)45.2% male7.7% diabetes 38.4% hypertensionNANA
Khatri, et al. (32)Mediterranean dietUnited States 9006.9>4041% male18% diabetes 69% hypertension65% Hispanic83.1
Liu, et al. (23)DASHUnited States 1534530–6442% male15% diabetes 42% hypertension58% black95.5
Rebholz, et al. (33)American Heart Association: Life’s Simple Seven Healthy DietUnited States14,8322245–6543% male11.5% diabetes 32.5% hypertension24% black103.5
Rebholz, et al. (34)Dietary acid loadUnited States 15,0552145–6445% male11.4% diabetes 34% hypertension26% black103.1
Rebholz, et al. (24)DASHUnited States14,8822345–6444% male11.5% diabetes 34% hypertension25% black103.1
Haring, et al. (35)Vegetable proteinUnited States11,9522345–6443% male30.7% hypertension22.8% black103.1
Chang, et al. (25)DASHUnited States 23541518–30 (34.8)47% male7.2% hypertension 1.5% diabetes50% black101.5
Smyth, et al. (26)AHEI; HEI; Mediterranean diet score; RFS; DASHUnited States 544,63514.362.259% male9.2% diabetes 43.5% hypertension92.7% whiteNA
Lin, et al. (21)DASHUnited States31211167100% female54% hypertension 23% diabetes 26.4 BMI97% white76
Chung, et al. (36)Fish and vegetablesTaiwan838259.547.5% male100% diabetesNA87.5
Ma, et al. (29)DGASUnited States1822759.443.6% male7.7% diabetes 48.8% hypertension 28 BMINA86.8
Naderinejad, et al. (37)Healthy dietIran15213.7<27 (46.2)58% male10.5% diabetes >120 mm Hg systolic BP >80 mm Hg diastolic BPNANA
Yuzbashian, et al.DASHIran34723.1≤3055% malehypertension (n=2,089) dyslipidemia (n=2,715) dysglycemia (n=1,100)NANA
  • NA, not applicable; DASH, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension; MAHEI, Modified Alternate Healthy Eating Index; DGAS, Dietary Guidelines Adherence Score; AHEI, Alternate Healthy Eating Index; HEI, Healthy Eating Index; RFS, Recommended Food Score; BMI, body mass index.